The second consistent argument is that the HBCUs should have certain academic program monopolies in order to compel all students to attend them for such programs. I have often heard HBCU leaders argue that their institutions cannot be expected to compete with traditionally white institutions and that program "duplication" should be avoided. That argument was, in effect, blessed by Judge Blake. In my opinion, that solution is highly problematic and potentially very damaging to all the institutions involved. In most sectors of our society, open and fair competition in all matters is generally believed to be good, because it promotes high performance by all competitors and outstanding performances by the best. In my experience, that is certainly true of academic institutions. Some program specialization does occur in academe. MIT and Caltech are not generally noted for their power in the humanities, but that choice is theirs, not society's. Choosing which programs to "unduplicate" would be a deeply controversial and difficult challenge! I doubt anyone would suggest that there should be only one English department among all of the Baltimore universities. But, according to Professor La Noue, Judge Blake "cited the fields of environmental studies, computer science, aging studies and health care facilities management as possible new programs for HBIs." Such programs might be "new" to Judge Blake or to some HBCUs, but over the past several decades they have become common major elements of the academic world, both in Maryland and nationally. I would certainly encourage HBCUs to adopt such programs, but they will need to compete with the world, not just the schools down the road.