Here’s the problem. Under existing immigration law, the city delineates a difference between civil law and criminal law enforcement at a moment when that difference no longer really matters to immigration law enforcement. The offense of crossing the border without authorization — creating the legal category of undocumented immigrant — can be enforced under criminal and civil law. While immigration law is the province of civil law and administrative process, ICE has increasingly criminalized civil law violations under the racist INA Section 1325, which has been in the books since 1929 and which categorizes undocumented entry as a criminal misdemeanor for a first time entry. Section 1325 has been used as the basis for Operation Streamline at the border and has served as a foundational building block in the criminalization of immigration.