In Antero Pietila's book, "Not in my Neighborhood," the author reported that Baltimore Mayor James H. Preston led a search for additional segregation tools after he came to power in 1911. America's local government had not yet widely discovered condemnation as a land-acquisition tool and none had used it to pursue racial goals. Mayor Preston was a pioneer on both counts. He presided over Baltimore's first government-sponsored African American removal project decades before post-World War II urban renewal. His target was the area north of the courthouse and City Hall.