These monarchs had ordered Columbus to treat the Indians favorably; however, needing income to maintain their support, he instead began utilizing the slave trade. His crew marketed thousands of Carib Indians overseas, causing hundreds of deaths. Those who avoided exportation were enslaved, raped, tortured, and forced into hard labor. If these Native Americans failed to bring Columbus the gold he desired, Columbus severed their hands and hanged their chiefs in rows of thirteen or burned them alive as an example. He indiscriminately murdered adults, children, and babies alike. When hunger spread, Spaniards fed Arawak babies to their dogs, the same dogs occasionally used to attack and control the Tainos. Historian Samuel Eliot Morison asserts that, "The whole history of the Americas stems from the four voyages of Columbus," which may be true. However, it's also true that, as historian David E. Stannard declares, Columbus led one of the "worst human holocausts the world had ever witnessed."