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I'm glad the climate change bill was approved by the Maryland Senate but sorry to see it passed strictly along partisan lines ("Climate change bill passes Senate on party line vote," March 10).

Objecting to the bill's language, state Sen. Andrew Serafini insisted that climate change is not an established fact. The "science is not settled," he said. "There are good and smart people on both sides."

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From such statements I can tell that Senator Serafini is neither a mathematician or a statistician, nor, perhaps, does he know any.

For years I failed to understand why scientists were so anxious about climate change if the issue was still in doubt. Finally I asked my husband about it. He is a research mathematician who worked for 25 years at Bell Labs on probability theory, data analysis, rare events and how to deal with the risks that arise when rare events occur.

He explained to me that "the law of gravity isn't known with 100 percent certainty. We accept gravity as true because we're satisfied with its predictions 99.99 percent of the time. Climate science has passed the point of certainty, ethically requiring global action."

If Mr. Serafini and his colleagues don't understand my husband's statement, I suggest they ask him for help understanding why he thinks climate science has passed the point of certainty requiring action.

They wouldn't object to Department of Transportation documents that treat gravity as a settled fact when bridges are designed. Neither should they object to climate change being treated as an established fact.

Mr. Serafini's confusion confuses the public and makes it harder to take the ethically required actions. He is ethically obligated to understand what he's talking about — and voting on.

Judy Weiss, Brookline, Mass.

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