Since the early 1990s, there has been a surge in research around history education. Much of this research has focused on how students best understand history, and it has set in motion a movement to change how history is taught. At about the same time, the federal government introduced a large grant program to fund improvements in history education, the Teaching American History Grant (TAH) program. As a requirement of these grants, local school systems had to form partnerships with universities, museums and historical societies. These partnerships helped to bring together awareness of the recent research on history education with the work of pedagogy experts in the school systems. Combined with an infusion of money heretofore unseen in history education, this led to a paradigm shift in history instruction.