The terrorist attacks of9/11represented the start of a defining era for Sikhs in the United States. Because of Sikhs' physical appearance and the fact that the architects of the attacks, including Osama bin Laden, wore turbans and had long beards, Sikhs encountered significant violence and discrimination immediately after the attacks. On September 15, 2001, for example, turbaned Sikh Balbir Singh Sodhi was killed in Mesa, Ariz., by a self-proclaimed "patriot" who sought that day to kill some "ragheads." Aside from murder, stabbings, physical assaults and verbal harassment, Sikhs have been profiled, ejected from airplanes, terminated from and refused employment, and bullied in schools, among other things, all on account of their appearance and specifically some Americans' hostility to it. All told, Sikh-Americans have suffered the disproportionate brunt of the post-9/11 backlash in America.