In addition, throughout U.S. history the American electoral system has been designed to make it more, not less, difficult to vote. Particularly since the Supreme Court’s 2013 decision in Shelby County versus Holder gutted the 1965 Voting Rights Act, Republican governors and state legislators have erected formidable barriers to voting, particularly for formerly incarcerated individuals, persons of color, immigrants and college students. During the 2020 campaign, these barriers included more stringent voter ID requirements, fewer polling places, shortened early voting periods and — even during a surging pandemic — obstacles to voting by mail. With characteristic bluntness, President Donald Trump admitted that if everyone voted, Republicans would never win a national election. One GOP senator, Mike Lee, went so far as to assert that the U.S. is “a republic, not a democracy.” Sen. Ted Cruz has long wanted to repeal the 17th amendment that provides for the direct election of U.S. Senators.