Last, we cannot continue to criminalize drug users. That’s been the core of the approach in the U.S. for decades, and it has not worked. If it worked, we wouldn’t be in the mess we are in now. Filling jails with users has only led to more problems in jails and upon release. Instead, those picked up for possession of small amounts of drugs ought to receive a civil citation and direction to treatment instead of a criminal conviction. Criminal convictions only serve to mark people for life and limit their ability to get education, job training, employment, housing, health care and a return to normal society. In other countries that have done this, addiction rates have gone down, and the heavy costs society pays for the multiple harms of addiction have been reduced. Just as Prohibition did not solve alcoholism, ending it did reduce toxic deaths and widespread crime.