Let’s start with pretextual stops — a tool for cops certified as acceptable by the United States Supreme Court. Essentially, the police are allowed to pull over a motorist for any reason, be it race, gender, age, appearance (or whatever prejudicial trait you prefer) so long as the stop can be justified by a by a legitimate traffic violation. The subjective intent of the cop, like if they want to look for bigger and badder stuff, really doesn’t matter if they can articulate an infraction. I’ve seen some shaky infractions like small cracks in windshields, third break lights out or failures to signal while pulling out of parking spots. Even if they’re wrong, the officer’s belief of the infraction is what counts, and, normally, their body camera isn’t turned on until after the stop is made. What a great mode of investigation at the police’s disposal!