In fiscal year 2012, Maryland received $1.6 billion from NIH. The recipients included Johns Hopkins University, which received $646 million, University of Maryland sites, which received $233 million and three independent research organizations, which received another $71 million. In total, 2,321 NIH grants were awarded in Maryland that year. Without that funding, these institutions would no longer be able to recruit talented researchers whose work may lead to medical breakthroughs. These doctors would go elsewhere — perhaps even outside the U.S.