The first clue came in this year's state legislative sessions. Almost exactly a year ago, an earlier Supreme Court ruling, Whiting vs.U.S. Chamber of Commerce, established that states may prevent and punish the hiring of unauthorized immigrants, requiring employers to enroll in E-Verify, the online federal program that checks employees' immigration status. Last year, as now, conventional wisdom held that every state, or most, would walk through the door the court had opened, passing employer sanctions of their own. But that didn't happen. In the five years before the Whiting decision, when it wasn't clear if such mandates were legal, one-third of the states passed measures requiring some employers to use E-Verify — usually state agencies or state contractors. This year, despite the justices' express permission, not a single state enacted a law imposing E-Verify on any new employers.