Dissenting in Shaw v. Reno in 1992, Justice Stevens insisted: "The duty to govern impartially is abused when a group with power over the electoral process defines electoral boundaries solely to enhance its own political strength at the expense of any weaker group." In 2006 he elaborated, again dissenting in Vieth v. Jubelirer: "when partisanship is the legislature's sole motivation — when any pretense of neutrality is forsaken unabashedly and all traditional districting criteria are subverted for partisan advantage — the governing body cannot be said to have acted impartially." Justice Kennedy, concurring with the judgment in Veith, lamented: "Here, one has the sense that legislative restraint was abandoned. ... Whether spoken with concern or pride, it is unfortunate that our legislators have reached the point of declaring that, when it comes to apportionment, 'We are in the business of rigging elections'" (quoting a North Carolina state senator). These observations cut to the heart of the problem: Gerrymandering is an abuse of process, a first principle of which is the right to an impartial decision maker. Rigged elections are the outcome of a rigged process.