When previous states have held votes on gay marriage, poll results have been less than reliable. In 2008, five of the eight public polls conducted in the two months before California voters decided on Proposition 8, which outlawed gay marriage, suggested that the measure would be defeated, perhaps by a wide margin. Instead, voters outlawed gay marriage, 53-47. When Maine voted on a 2009 referendum to overturn its gay marriage law, most polls showed that voters favored same-sex marriage, in one case by double digits. But it was defeated, also 53-47. In all, 32 states have rejected gay marriage, though most of them have been conservative states and have pre-dated the recent rise in public poll support.