So, as we work toward a "functional" HIV cure and effective vaccine, what should be done in the meantime? Test, test, test and treat, treat, treat. The CDC estimates that more than 1.1 million people in the U.S. are living with HIV infection, and almost 1 in 6 is unaware of their infection. A 2012 Johns Hopkins study reported that the number of new cases of HIV infection among black women in Baltimore, D.C. and other urban "hot spots" is five times higher than previously thought. Over the years I have advocated for the establishment of a domestic program similar to the highly successful President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) overseas program.