Mr. Holder is right to be cautious. First, some factors that can contribute to an individual's risk profile, such as race and sex, may be constitutionally off-limits. Moreover, Congress has declared by statute that the federal sentencing guidelines are to be "entirely neutral as to the race, sex, national origin, creed and socioeconomic status of offenders." While no current risk-assessment tool expressly uses race as part of the composite risk score, scholars have stated that race at least in theory could be so used because of the purportedly high correlation between race and criminality. Even accepting this correlation, constitutional and statutory limits should nonetheless preclude race and other immutable characteristics from inclusion in risk-assessment instruments.