The U.S. Supreme Court has described the pretrial process as "perhaps the most critical period" of criminal legal proceedings. Only recently, however, have states begun to scrutinize racial disparities at this stage of the justice process. Nationally, African Americans are more than 2 ½ times more likely to be arrested than white Americans. They are also more likely to be detained in jail than whites who are charged with the exact same crimes, while white arrestees are twice as likely to be released on their own recognizance. When money bail is set, it is, on average, 35 percent higher for African-American men than white men and 19 percent higher for Hispanic men. Here in Maryland, the mean bail amount for African Americans is 45 percent higher than that of whites at initial appearance, and 51 percent higher than that of whites at the bail review hearing.