Thus the broader and deeper violation of students in a place like Reach is hard to capture in a 4-second video clip of a police beat down. The 2014 book "The Long Shadow: Family Background, Disadvantaged Urban Youth, and the Transition to Adulthood" by Johns Hopkins sociologists Karl Alexander, Doris Entwisle and Linda Olson, showed that only 4 percent of kids from poverty in Baltimore made it to college. More importantly, the authors' 25-year study in Baltimore showed that even when kids put in hard work, went to school and played by the rules, they rarely made it out. There is simply little to no social mobility for the kids I teach at Reach. The kids know this. They are locked down and locked out, and policing them vigorously is not part of the program — it is central to it.