Let's be clear about what the bills would mean in practical terms. National scholarly conferences are crucial for academics; it is where they present and discuss their ideas. But under these bills, a professor or graduate student would face economic and intellectual pressure. If, for example, she wanted to present her paper at an ASA conference, be it an analysis of 19th century American literature or a study of the African American civil rights movement, she would have to find a way to pay for the fees and travel out of her own pocket. Yet a scholar in the office next door who presents a paper at any other conference, whether his paper be a study of 19th century American literature or a highly controversial proposal about U.S policy toward Iran (or Israel, or China), would get the usual research support to do so. The point will not be lost on scholars: if they are to be penalized just for being members of an organization whose policies legislators do not like, how much more will they feel under threat if they want to actually discuss the boycott, or even to advocate for it?