"To avoid arrest, Dr. Hirsch sent his children to Switzerland in the company of their grandmother," said Ms. Kessler's son, John J. "Jack" Condliffe of Timonium. "Dr. Hirsch completed a scheduled surgery that same day, and he and his wife followed across the Swiss border by car. The family traveled separately to avoid the appearance that they were fleeing the country. The Nazi state, still in its infancy, had not yet established full control of its citizenry."