"The Nazis' crimes had been far worse," German newspaper Der Spiegel wrote in 2011, "but the suffering of ethnic Germans was immense."
The aftermath of the 30th September Movement
Following a failed coup d'etat in 1965 by a group referred to as the 30th September Movement, General Suharto led an anti-communist purge in Indonesia that eventually turned into widespread massacres around the country. In the end, the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI), once one of the largest, was virtually wiped out: Estimates for the number of dead start at 500,000.
For decades, there was little discussion of the killings in 1965-1966. Few foreign observers saw the events and many foreign governments –including the United States – viewed the anti-communist movement as a good thing. When Suharto became president in 1967, an official silence was installed across the country. Suharto would end up being president for 32 years: To this day, communist organizations are officially banned.
It was only in the past few years that discussions about the terrible events began to take place. In 2010, Indonesia's Constitutional Court struck down a ban on several books about the coup that mentioned the killings. In 2012, American filmmaker Joshua Oppenheimer released "The Act of Killing," a documentary that saw perpetrators act out their killings, which sparked renewed international attention.
The Bangladesh Genocide
The Partition of India after 1947 saw one of the world's largest migrations ever: Some estimates suggest 2 million or more died in the chaos. It also left Pakistan split between the main rump of its body to the west of the new state of India, and a smaller province of East Bengal, later renamed East Pakistan, to the east.
This split state didn't last, with terrible consequences. In 1971, West Pakistan began a military crackdown on Bengali calls for independence, which eventually led to a nine-month war that birthed Bangladesh.
That war resulted in an estimated 10 million refugees, and while there is no clear death toll, estimates put the number of deaths in the tens, if not hundreds, of thousands. The Bangladeshi government has said that as many as 3 million people died, and many observers consider it a genocide. The war's toll on women was also especially awful: Estimates say that at least 200,000 people were raped.
Recent investigations have also focused on the role the United States could have, and perhaps should have, played in ending the conflict. Pakistan was reliant on U.S. military hardware, journalist Gary J. Bass noted in his book "The Blood Telegram," but President Richard Nixon was fearful of using it, as Pakistan was a secret conduit for communications to communist China.
Ethiopia's Red Terror
Between 1976 and 1978, the Ethiopian government ran a brutal counter-insurgency campaign which they dubbed "Red Terror." Following the political vacuum created when Emperor Haile Selassie was deposed by a military junta in 1974, a new Marxist government, led by Mengistu Haile Mariam, sought to eradicate the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party and other opposition groups.
Estimates of those left dead vary greatly – Human Rights Watch says that the figure was "certainly well in excess of 10,000" and that the killings were "one of the most systematic uses of mass murder by a state ever witnessed in Africa." Other estimates say as many as 500,000 were killed.
Mengistu was deposed in 1991, and fled to exile in Zimbabwe. In 2006, an Ethiopian court found him guilty of genocide, though some doubt that the label is appropriate, as the killings did not target one particular group. Mengistu remains free in Zimbabwe.
Adam Taylor, Washington Post