PHILADELPHIA -- While the White House has been focusing its foreign policy attention on Iraq, the rest of the world hasn't been standing still.
China has been using a new approach to expand its influence and global appeal. This approach is one at which the United States once excelled but now does badly. Call it "soft power," a term coined more than a decade ago by Harvard's Joseph Nye to describe a country's ability to lead by example and get others to follow because they admire what you are.
A new book called Charm Offensive: How China's Soft Power Is Transforming the World looks at Beijing's increasing skill at using diplomacy, trade incentives, cultural and educational exchanges, and other techniques to build an image of a benign global leader. The author, Asia specialist Joshua Kurlantzick, describes a Chinese strategy that has received little U.S. attention. Beijing is wooing Asians, Latin Americans and Africans with a subtle approach aimed at countering fears of China's rising military and economic strength.
Speaking last week at the Foreign Policy Research Institute in Philadelphia, Mr. Kurlantzick described the practical reasons China is relying more on soft than hard power. In the 1990s, many Asians were unnerved by fears of Chinese military adventurism. Chinese leaders understood this image was harmful. Given their growth, they needed more access to energy resources and wanted to play a bigger role in Asia. "China saw that if it reduced [other countries'] fears, it could gain," the author says.
So the Chinese have expanded people-to-people diplomacy, set up their own Peace Corps, and trained diplomats to speak local languages and appear on local TV shows. Tens of thousands of foreign students attend Chinese universities. Chinese language and cultural studies are soaring in popularity.
China is pouring aid into Third World countries, including many whose relations with the U.S. have faltered, which could prove useful for resources - such as Venezuela, Sudan and Iran. It asks no questions about human rights violations.
President Bush touts the need for public diplomacy. But his appointment of Karen Hughes as public diplomacy czar has been a failure, as evidenced by poll after depressing poll. One example: In a 2005 BBC poll of 22 nations, 48 percent believed China's role in the world was mainly positive, but only 38 percent thought the same of the United States.
What's so disturbing about Charm Offensive is the larger problem it illuminates. America is no longer taking advantage of its greatest strengths: leading the community of democracies by example. Our diplomacy, as Mr. Kurlantzick notes, is preoccupied with Iraq and the "war against terrorism" to the exclusion of other countries' concerns.
While China promotes a model of authoritarian politics plus growth, we undercut the image of our democratic model by violating our own precepts on domestic surveillance and torture. This doesn't have to be the case.
When it comes to exercising soft power, America should take a page from China's book. Train more diplomats to speak local languages, and let them do more tours in the countries whose languages they speak. Reopen U.S. cultural centers abroad. Unlike China, focus U.S. radio broadcasts abroad on real news, like the BBC does, not on pop music and propaganda. Retake our former leadership in multinational organizations - and take the lead in environmental causes such as global warming.
"If soft power is not exercised, it goes away or somewhere else, doesn't it?" asks Harvey Sicherman, president of the Foreign Policy Research Institute. The answer, as Mr. Kurlantzick's book makes clear, is a definitive "yes."
Trudy Rubin is a columnist for The Philadelphia Inquirer. Her column appears Tuesdays in The Sun. Her e-mail is firstname.lastname@example.org.