WASHINGTON -- Two former senior White House officials were subpoenaed yesterday by congressional committees investigating the firing last year of eight U.S. attorneys. The subpoenas of former counsel Harriet E. Miers and political affairs director Sara M. Taylor set the stage for a new confrontation between Congress and the White House.
The White House has refused to provide unfettered access to testimony and documents that lawmakers have sought as part of the three-month probe, even as Justice Department documents and testimony have shown that the White House was deeply involved in the firings.
Democrats believe the dismissals were calculated to affect public corruption and voter registration cases in ways that would benefit Republicans. The Bush administration has said the Democratic-led probe has turned up no evidence of misconduct.
"The White House cannot have it both ways," said Sen. Patrick J. Leahy, a Vermont Democrat who is chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee, which issued the subpoena to Taylor. "It cannot stonewall congressional investigations by refusing to provide documents and witnesses, while claiming nothing improper occurred."
White House spokesman Tony Snow said it was "way premature" to ask whether the White House would go to court to fight the subpoenas. "They are going to be reviewing the subpoenas and responding appropriately," Snow said.
If the officials refuse to comply, Congress could hold them in contempt, possibly resulting in court action, although such disputes are usually resolved far short of that. While some legal experts said the administration appeared to be operating from a position of weakness, the White House also seemed to be gearing up for a fight.
Leahy's panel, along with the House Judiciary Committee, also subpoenaed White House documents pertaining to the firings.
Miers, a longtime friend and adviser to Bush, was involved in the genesis of the prosecutor purge, at one point suggesting that the administration fire all 93 U.S. attorneys, the White House has said.
Taylor closely monitored the firing of Arkansas prosecutor H.E. "Bud" Cummins, who was replaced by Tim Griffin, a protege of White House political strategist Karl Rove, other documents show.
"Ms. Taylor takes her responsibilities as a citizen very seriously, and she is hopeful the White House and Congress are quickly able to work out an appropriate agreement on her cooperation with the Senate's proceedings," Neil Eggleston, her lawyer, said in a prepared statement.
Miers, who is practicing law in Dallas, could not be reached for comment.
Taylor was subpoenaed to appear July 11 before the Senate Judiciary Committee; Miers was ordered to appear before the House Judiciary Committee July 12.
Except in cases involving national security or military secrets, the executive branch enjoys no absolute privilege to withhold documents from Congress. In most disputes, courts balance the interests of the administration in keeping the documents private against the public or congressional interests in learning about the material. Some legal experts said they believe that Congress would prevail in any court fight over the U.S. attorney documents.
"I think if you were to stand back from this and say who has the better argument, the answer is going to be Congress," said Peter Shane, an expert on separation of powers at the Ohio State University law school.
Richard B. Schmitt writes for the Los Angeles Times.