DR. LAWRENCE C. KOLB, 95 Mental health researcher
Dr. Lawrence C. Kolb, a prominent mental health administrator and researcher who helped create the community mental health movement and became the public face of psychiatry for a generation of New Yorkers, died in his sleep Oct. 20 in Orlando, Fla.
He was born in Baltimore and completed his medical studies at the Johns Hopkins University in 1934.
His long public career began, and ended, with two influential studies of psychological suffering. While a young doctor in the 1940s, he spent hours talking with patients who described feelings of excruciating pain in limbs that had been amputated. The result was a definitive account of what is now widely recognized as phantom limb pain. And in the early 1980s, nearing retirement, he led studies that demonstrated how combat stress could cause clear physical symptoms, a finding that helped prompt the government to undertake studies of post-traumatic symptoms among Vietnam veterans.
He became a public figure in the 1960s and 1970s as chairman of the psychiatry department of Columbia University Medical Center and director of the New York State Psychiatric Institute. He became commissioner of the New York State Department of Mental Hygiene in 1975.
JENS CHRISTIAN HAUGE, 91 Norway underground leader
Jens Christian Hauge, who led Norway's underground military resistance during World War II, then helped shape his nation's postwar future by using high political and business positions to carve out pro-Western but independent policies, died Monday in Oslo.
As defense minister from 1945 to 1952, he led in bringing Norway from its traditional posture of neutrality into the Western alliance against the Soviet Union. But he also helped bar North Atlantic Treaty Organization bases and the stockpiling of nuclear weapons in Norway.
After oil was found in the Norwegian part of the North Sea in 1968, he led the formation of a national oil company similar to those that countries such as Libya and Kuwait were then creating.
He also helped start the Scandinavian Airline System, or SAS, and was its chairman.