The College Park freshmen of 2002 have seen their tuitions increase by 35 percent. Before that class arrived on campus, about 22 percent of Maryland students had to borrow money at some point in their careers. Now, the figure is 47 percent.
Led by Senate President Thomas V. Mike Miller, a 1964 College Park alumnus, top lawmakers want to erase the 4.5 percent tuition increase approved recently for most campuses by the university system Board of Regents. The regents -- a majority of whom were appointed by Ehrlich -- adopted the increase despite a record funding boost for the University System of Maryland contained in the governor's budget this year.
Miller and other Democrats say rising tuition at Maryland schools amounts to a huge tax increase on the middle class, undermining the impact of Ehrlich's pledge -- which he has kept -- not to raise sales or income taxes.
"Students and parents are paying a hidden tax, subsidizing state government through heavy tuition increases, and the Senate of Maryland is going to say, 'Enough is enough,'" Miller said.
Both of the Democratic candidates for governor -- Montgomery County Executive Douglas M. Duncan and Baltimore Mayor Martin O'Malley -- have also pushed for controls on tuition increases.
"There's a tremendous amount of anxiety in our state about the inability of working families to pay for a college education for their children," O'Malley said. "We need a governor who realizes [higher education] is not some laudable charity but rather the basis upon which a strong economy in this modern age depends."
But it's unclear whether the Ehrlich administration would back a move by the legislature to get more money for the university system.
"This is part of a bigger trend of trying to usurp the governor's executive power," said Ehrlich spokeswoman Shareese N. DeLeaver. "This isn't about freezing tuition. This is about trying to one-up the governor, and hopefully those who are dedicated to higher education in the state will see through this election-year gimmick."
In general, the executive sets the state budget, and the legislature can only cut from it. But lawmakers have frequently sidestepped that restriction by cutting money from one program and enacting language stipulating that it can only be spent on another one of the legislature's choosing.
Last year, the Ehrlich administration balked at this practice, saying it overstepped the legislature's authority. The governor refused to allocate money to support prenatal care for immigrant women, grants for failing schools, cancer research and other programs, mostly as a matter of principle.
Miller said the Senate is considering a variety of sources for the money, including some reserve funds or extra money budgeted for university employee health care. Lawmakers are looking to fund a one-year freeze, not long-term tuition control.
University system officials -- and some students -- say they worry that the legislature will move to freeze tuition at the expense of other campus operations and improvements.
Regents Chairman David Nevins said the board's mission is to maintain quality, affordability and access to the institution, and he and his colleagues believe that allowing a 4.5 percent tuition increase at most campuses best achieves that balance.
Leaving tuition flat would cost the system about $19 million in revenues, jeopardizing attempts to expand capacity at Towson and Salisbury universities and increase need-based financial aid, he said. Plans to augment academic programs or create new ones could also be at risk, he said.
"If there is a way developed for us to further moderate even this moderate tuition increase, we would give it, I think, serious consideration," Nevins said.
University of Maryland, College Park President C.D. "Dan" Mote Jr. testified before House and Senate panels over the past several days in support of the tuition increase, saying it is necessary to maintain and improve educational quality.
But after several years of large increases in costs, Mote said, he is increasingly worried about the debt levels of graduating students, an acute problem for middle-income families. Among academically qualified students, those whose parents earn between $40,000 and $60,000 a year are the least likely to go to college, he said.
"The middle-class people are stressed a lot by the costs of higher education," Mote said. "They have less access to financial aid, and they have the same costs."
Parents are incurring debt, too. The year before current College Park seniors started school, parents borrowed about $14 million to help their children. Last year, parents borrowed almost $24 million.
Tuition is only part of the story. Costs for room and board, fees, books and other expenses also have gone up rapidly in the past few years. Room and board alone costs more than tuition.
The total estimated cost of sending a student to College Park is now $19,501 a year, up from $16,531 four years ago. Most of that comes from a tuition increase.
Total costs have gone up significantly at other campuses as well. Towson University costs $17,724, up from $14,754 four years ago. The University of Maryland, Baltimore County has gone from $14,847 to $19,656.
Nick Aragon, chairman of the University System Student Council, said students are stuck with an impossible choice.
The tuition increases since he started at College Park have been far greater than families could have planned for, forcing students to take on bigger loans than they had expected and to work multiple jobs to make ends meet, he said. Last summer, he worked a 40-hour-a-week job, mowed lawns and did maintenance work for his landlord to meet the student-contribution requirement of his financial aid package.
At the same time, classes are more crowded. Libraries and the gym close earlier. Bus service was cut back.
"You don't want your tuition increased any more, but you've got to understand that if you're going to get any type of service, you need to have the money," Aragon said. "It's really gotten to the point where students are throwing their hands up."
Ultimately, the University System Student Council endorsed the 4.5 percent increase.
Duncan said a one-year freeze would help but not nearly as much as a long-term commitment to improving access. He has proposed a new scholarship program for top high school performers, as well as additional need-based scholarships and aid to historically black colleges.
Ehrlich has increased need-based aid and poured additional money into Maryland's historically black colleges.
"Maryland should be the national leader in sending kids to college," Duncan said. "A one-year tuition freeze will help, but it won't do it. That's why we need to look long-term."
In the meantime, the tuition increases are changing the college experience for those who can afford to stay, said Jordan Hatfield, the UMBC student government president.
"College is supposed to be the best years of your life because you're able to open yourself up," he said. "You come to college with one doorway ... and then you should leave having 400 open doors, and I think what's happening is students are arriving at college realizing they don't have time to look at the doors in front of them because they have to worry about paying for it."