MOSCOW - When Rabbi Zinovy L. Kogan arrived at the Moscow city prosecutor's office recently, investigators grilled him for two hours about an allegedly incendiary text published by his religious organization.
The suspect work? A Russian translation of a 19th-century book of rules governing Jewish life.
By printing thousands of copies of Kitzur Shulhan Arukh and distributing them through Jewish religious schools, Kogan had angered Russian nationalists. One filed a formal complaint last year with the prosecutor general, claiming the book incited religious hatred against people of other faiths.
For months Moscow prosecutors have weighed banning the book, published by Kogan's Congress of Jewish Religious Congregations and Organizations. The investigation has dragged on despite protests by the Israeli government and international Jewish groups, as well as pledges by the Kremlin and the Russian Orthodox Church to fight anti-Semitism.
"This book regulates the life of Jews," Kogan said in an interview yesterday at Moscow's ornate Choral Synagogue, a few blocks from Red Square. "To ban this book means to ban Judaism in Russia."
The Conference of European Rabbis denounced the prosecutor's decision to summon Kogan for questioning June 23. Wire services quoted a spokesman for the Israeli Foreign Ministry saying the investigation "reminds us of the official state-sponsored anti-Semitism that we saw in tsarist Russia."
Years of persecution
For centuries, Jews faced persecution in Russia, from restrictions on where they could live under the early czars, to 19th- and early 20th-century pogroms tolerated by the state, to Stalin's allegations of a "doctors' plot" - his claim near the end of his life that Jewish physicians were conspiring to kill prominent Soviet citizens.
Between 1975 and 2000, about 1 million Jews fled the former Soviet Union for Israel. Thousands have returned to Russia in recent years, and Russian authorities say the Jews are returning to a nation that welcomes them.
But Russia also seems to be the site of a groundswell of anti-Semitism that is finding open expression in political life.
"If you look at the situation today, you'll find there is no officially condoned anti-Semitism," said Vladimir Posner, a prominent TV journalist, who is Jewish. "On the other hand, there is a much more pronounced anti-Semitism at the man-on-the-street level. You have newspapers, you have books that are very anti-Semitic.
"You have people, including members of the Duma" - the lower house of parliament - "who make statements that are clearly anti-Semitic."
Some of these ultra-nationalists have in recent years demanded that Jews be denied the right to vote or forced into exile.
Russian President Vladimir V. Putin denounced anti-Semitism during a January visit to Auschwitz, the Nazi death camp in Poland. "No one has the right to remain indifferent" to attacks on Jews, he said, vowing to fight religious bigotry "with the force of law and through public opinion."
But at about the same time, thousands of Russians signed an open letter demanding that all Jewish organizations be banned and attacking the Kitzur Shulhan Arukh as racist. The signers included 19 nationalist and Communist members of the 450-seat Duma.
Two deputies went on Posner's popular talk show, Vremnya, Feb. 6 to defend the letter and their call to ban the book.
"They were trying to provoke anti-Semitic reaction to Russia," Posner said. "I kind of wanted to puncture that balloon."
A Communist Duma member, Sergei V. Sobko, claimed the book treats Christians as subhuman and says the difference between Jews and non-Jews is "akin to the difference between ... humans and animals."
As such, Sobko said, Christians are "subject to the death penalty."
"You can't find such a line in the book," Kogan said. "It was simply a lie. And tens of millions of people heard it." Sobko could not be reached for comment yesterday.
A spokesman for the chief of the European Jewish Congress said the organization would ask European Union states not to issue visas valid throughout Europe to the Russian deputies who signed the letter.
Based on a 16th-century rabbinical work and abridged in the 19th century by Rabbi Shlomo Ganzfried, the Kitzur Shulhan Arukh is a distillation of Jewish rules for living. It instructs Jewish women, for example, not to serve as midwives for non-Jews and Jewish tradesmen not to take on non-Jewish apprentices, Kogan said.
These rules, said Kogan, reflected the fears of 19th-century Jews in central Europe that they would be blamed for any sickness or ill fortune of Christians.
Kogan's group began printing the Kitzur Shulhan Arukh in 1997. It has distributed about 7,000 copies in Russia and Israel.
A Russian historian complained to prosecutors about the book in 2004. Kogan called the criticism "a new kind of anti-Semitism" because it targets the practice of Judaism rather than Jews themselves.
After a year of legal proceedings, the Moscow City Court ruled May 30 that the book did not incite religious hatred, and it canceled the investigation. But the city prosecutor's office decided this month to review the court's decision.
Kogan was summoned in connection with that review.
Sergei P. Marchenko, chief of the legal department of the Moscow prosecutor's office, declined yesterday to comment on the case. But prosecutors evidently remain suspicious of the work.
"According to the last results from the prosecutor's expert committee, the book itself has wording that provokes anti-Semitism," said Galina Kozhevnikova, who chronicles anti-Semitic incidents in Russia on her Web site, "Sova" or "Owl." "This is a very strange things for experts to find, much less to state it."
Jewish leaders here say some nationalists seem determined to provoke violence. After the bodies of five missing schoolboys were found last month in the Siberian city of Krasnoyarsk, the nationalist ideologue Mikhail Nazarov suggested Jews killed them, according to Kozhevnikova.
The same inflammatory charge, Kozhevnikova said, was repeated at a May 29 rally in Moscow's Pushkin Square, led by two other nationalist political figures - Aleksandr Ivanov-Sukharevsky, leader of the People's National Party, and Viktor Korchagin, publisher of a Russian edition of Hitler's Mein Kampf.
The Moscow News reported that about 800 protesters attended the rally, and the paper published photographs showing demonstrators holding signs with anti-Semitic slogans.
Inciting racial, ethnic or religious hatred is illegal in Russia. When charges are brought against those who publish anti-Semitic materials, said Kozhevnikova, prosecutors or judges often declare the material isn't inflammatory.
"People feel impunity," she said. "They can appeal to this or that text, and say that it is not anti-Semitic, according to the court. They go on doing what they're doing. And then there are outbreaks of violence."
Aleksandr Y. Smirnov, a spokesman for the Kremlin administration, said in a phone interview yesterday that he was unfamiliar with the Kogan case.
But in general, he said, Putin "has an ongoing dialogue with representatives of the Jewish communities" and supports Russian laws that protect religious liberty.
Rabbi Kogan said he recently met with Aleksei II, patriarch of the Orthodox Church, and warned, "The winds of anti-Semitism are blowing."
"Zinovy, we are doing everything in our power to stop these winds," Kogan recalled the patriarch reassuring him.
But the investigation continues. "And I don't understand why," the rabbi said.