True love and roses: It is an arrangement that has survived wars, natural calamities and the advent of speed dating.
But the rose, a symbol of passion since antiquity, is more than a rose. It's a versatile ingredient and decorative element that allows a Valentine's Day meal to speak your heart's desire.
In February, when fresh, edible roses are scarce, a loving chef's fancy turns to rose water, an intensely perfumed distillation of petals from the damask rose and other heirloom varieties known for their potent fragrance.
Rose water is a versatile flavoring that can add a sensual grace note to every course, savory or sweet. On Valentine's Day, though, the sweeter the better. Couple a rose-water-infused dessert with fresh or candied organic roses, and you have a beautiful feast, redolent of romance through the ages and around the world.
In the Middle East and the Mediterranean, as well as in India and China, rose water has been a staple ingredient for centuries. Fragrances, including rose water, were the "noblest of all food additives in the Arab repertoire," according to an essay in Food: A Culinary History (Columbia, 1999). Plentiful rose water has been used to flavor beef, chicken, vegetables, fruit salads, curries and rice dishes, pastries, puddings, and beverages both cold and hot.
In A Mediterranean Feast: Story of the Birth of the Celebrated Cuisines of the Mediterranean (William Morrow & Co., 1999), historian Clifford A. Wright discusses "white coffee," a "popular beverage in Damascus, when people wish to avoid caffeine. They stir orange flavor water or rose water with sugar into a cup of boiling water."
Rose water is often paired with cinnamon, almonds and cardamom, a refreshing variation from desserts that revolve around chocolate and vanilla.
"The Muslim and Arab people of the Middle East have been using rose water since the seventh century for many purposes," says Suzanne Amr, a Columbia resident who teaches the art of Middle Eastern cooking through the Howard County Department of Recreation and Parks.
"Most of our desserts -- for example, basbousa, a dessert made out of semolina or farina and some nuts and syrups -- are flavored with rose water," says Amr, who spent her first 30 years in Egypt.
The culinary use of roses, which are native to all areas of the world north of the equator, spread from the East to the West. In her 1939 collection, Rose Recipes From Olden Times, Eleanour Sinclair Rohde includes instructions for making "a cake with rose water, the way of the royal princess, the Lady Elizabeth, daughter to King Charles the First." The 17th-century recipe calls for "halfe a pecke of flowre, half a pinte of rose water, a pint of ale yeast, a pint of creame," among other ingredients.
Until the middle of the 19th century, rural American cooks with far fewer resources than King Charles I used rose water instead of scant and costly vanilla to flavor puddings, cakes, cookies, gingerbread and pies.
In addition to its use in more elaborate concoctions, rose water can be added to whipped creams, fruit salads and compotes. Blended into a heavy sugar syrup, rose water is a delightful elixir to drizzle over poundcakes, waffles, pancakes and ice cream.
Crystallized rose petals add a fairy-tale shimmer to sorbets, pastries and other confections prepared with rose water. They also can be crumbled and broadcast across a cake. Use fresh roses as well to garnish cakes and other desserts.
But not just any roses. In February, most available blooms have been treated with herbicides and pesticides and should not be consumed. Unless you can find (and afford) roses grown specifically for culinary use through a specialty-produce company, it is best to wait until your own organically grown roses come into bloom to prepare rose teas, jellies, honeys, ice cream and other delicacies.
The certified organic roses sold in bouquets at Whole Foods and similar retailers are not recommended for extensive consumption, either. But well-washed organic roses, cleansed of natural sprays and used for decorative purposes, are safe to eat, says Ted Johnson, president of the mass-market division of the Delaware Valley Wholesale Florists.
The dried petals of roses grown to be edible are another option. Scatter them over cookies and cakes or blend them into butter or whipped cream, for a pretty effect and a subtle taste variation.
To top off your Valentine bouquet, throw in a little Shakespeare, for whom the rose epitomized love's ideal. In one sonnet, the Bard, in the guise of an imperfect beau, bids his lover to:
Never believe, though in my nature reign'd,
All frailties that besiege all kinds of blood,
That it could so preposterously be stain'd,
To leave for nothing all thy sum of good;
For nothing this wide universe I call,
Save thou, my rose; in it thou art my all.
Gathering ye rose buds
Where to find rose water:
Near East Bakery, 2919 Hamilton Ave., Baltimore, 410-254-8970
Punjab, 345 33rd St., Baltimore, 410-662-7844
Sizar's Food Mart, 6955 Oakland Mills Road #A, Columbia, 410-381-4375
Finding edible roses:
For those able to make an extravagant culinary gesture, the specialty-produce company Frieda's will ship orders of edible miniature roses if they're available. Call 800-241-1771 or visit www.friedas.com.
Dried rose petals for teas, decorative confetti and other cooking uses are also available from Edible Flowers. Call 866-721-5604 or visit www.edibleflowers.net.
Rose Petal Poundcake
Makes 12 servings
1 cup butter, softened
1 2/3 cups granulated sugar
2 cups all-purpose flour
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon almond extract
1 1/2 ounces finely chopped almonds
1 teaspoon rose water
2 drops red food coloring
confectioners' sugar, for dusting
Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Grease one 9-inch tube pan. Cream butter well. In a separate bowl beat sugar and eggs together until doubled in volume. Add sifted flour and salt gradually. Fold in creamed butter thoroughly.
Divide batter into 2 equal parts. Into 1 part add the almond extract and the ground almonds. To the other part add the rose water and the red food coloring. Spoon batters alternately into the prepared pan.
Bake for 50 to 60 minutes. Let cake cool, then remove from pan and dust with confectioners' sugar.
- From www.recipe goldmine.com
Per serving: 370 calories; 6 grams protein; 19 grams fat; 8 grams saturated fat; 44 grams carbohydrate; 128 milligrams cholesterol; 234 milligrams sodium
Makes a dozen sweetheart roses, and 3 large roses
1 egg white
couple drops 100-proof vodka
2 tablespoons superfine granulated sugar
freshly picked roses
In a small bowl, beat the egg white to a light froth. Add 1 or 2 drops of vodka and mix. This helps the flower to dry quicker. Pour sugar into a shallow bowl. Have a paintbrush at hand and the freshly picked roses. Cover a wire cake rack with baking parchment.
Dip the paintbrush in the beaten egg white. Gently paint all surfaces of the petals of the flower with the egg white. Make sure to get between all petals. Gently sprinkle the sugar on the flower, making sure to cover all surfaces and between the petals. Place the flower face up on the parchment. Repeat process with another flower.
Place the rack in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area to allow to dry completely. When the flowers dry, they will be stiff and brittle. Store in an airtight container.
-- "Edible Flowers: Desserts & Drinks" by Cathy Wilkinson Barash (Fulcrum Publishing, 1997, $16.95)
Buttermilk-Lemon Sorbet With Cardamom and Rose Water
10 cardamom pods
1 1/2 cups sugar
1 cup water, preferably spring or filtered
5 cups buttermilk
1 tablespoon finely grated lemon rind
1 1/4 cups fresh-squeezed lemon juice
2 teaspoons rose water
dash of salt
Combine cardamom and sugar with the water in a medium saucepan over medium-high heat. Bring to a boil; then lower heat slightly and boil for 5 minutes. Remove from heat and let stand until cooled to room temperature. Strain the syrup, discarding the cardamom pods.
Combine the syrup with the buttermilk, lemon rind, lemon juice, rose water and salt. Place in an ice-cream maker and freeze according to the manufacturer's directions. When the ice cream is done, transfer it to a freezer container with a tight-fitting lid. Let it rest in the freezer for 3 to 4 hours to firm up slightly before serving.
- From "Passionate Vegetarian: More Than 1,000 Robust Recipes With Notes on Cooking, Eating, Loving, and Living Fearlessly" by Crescent Dragonwagon (Workman, 2002, $24.95) Per serving: 288 calories; 7 grams protein; 2 grams fat; 1 gram saturated fat; 64 grams carbohydrate; 8 milligrams cholesterol; 240 milligrams sodium