George "Tex" Nalle, 83, founder with his father of a plastics business whose products ranged from feather duster handles to a filter that made kidney dialysis widely available, died Thursday in Austin, Texas.
He was born in Austin, the only child of World War I veteran George Sampson Nalle, and lone grandson of Texas Govs. James Edward Ferguson and Miriam Amanda Ferguson. Known politically as "Ma" and "Pa" Ferguson, between them they served four nonconsecutive terms from 1915 to 1935.
As a young man, Mr. Nalle lived in the governor's mansion. He graduated from the University of Texas in 1941 and was commissioned an officer in the Army Air Corps shortly before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
During World War II, when his assignments included Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio, he met his wife of 57 years, the former Anne Byrd of Baltimore.
At the end of the war, the military assigned him to a civilian group of American plastics experts who assessed the German plastics industry. When he returned to Austin, he persuaded his father to help him create Nalle Plastics Inc., which began by manufacturing products such as clothespins.
They concentrated on such mundane products as the red netting for wrapping hams, fox calls popular with hunters and the handles of feather dusters, but the line grew to include the filter for dialysis, in which Mr. Nalle took particular pride, said his son, Allan Woods Nalle Sr.
Before it was sold in 1986, the company had two dozen employees and manufactured other products such as filters to make salt water drinkable, parts for heart-lung machines and plastic netting for construction barricades.
Garrett Hardin, 88, a leading ecological thinker whose contrarian stands have influenced debates on abortion, immigration, foreign aid and other prickly issues, apparently took his own life. He was found dead Sept. 14, along with his 81-year-old wife, Jane, at their Santa Barbara, Calif., home.
The Hardins, who had been in poor health for many years, belonged to the Hemlock Society and had made clear to their family that they intended to choose their own time of death, said a niece, Rebecca Hardin.
Mr. Hardin was an emeritus professor of human ecology at the University of California, Santa Barbara, where he taught for three decades until his retirement in 1978.
A prolific author, he was best known for a 1968 essay, "The Tragedy of the Commons," in which he argued that humanity must curtail some of its freedoms to stave off overpopulation and environmental disasters.
His beliefs led to a number of controversial positions, from his support of legal abortions to his "tough love" approach to foreign aid.
In 1960, he developed a course in "human ecology" to stimulate thinking about population and environmental issues. In 1963, he began to urge the legalization of abortion and lectured across the country on the need to free women from "compulsory pregnancy."
Going a step further, he joined an underground network that helped women in the United States obtain abortions in Japan and Mexico. He justified his stance to fellow conservatives with the argument that the cost of raising an unwanted child far exceeded the price for an abortion.
His noted essay grappled with a fundamental question: How should society manage resources, such as land, water, fish and air, that belong to everyone?
Considering the harshness of his views, Mr. Hardin often surprised people with his gentle demeanor.
"He had a rare gift, sitting with a group of students, faculty or friends, and with a gorgeous, grandfatherly smile, asking questions that made you think and hurt," said Barry Schuyler, an environmental studies professor at UC Santa Barbara and longtime colleague.
Gen. Charles A. Gabriel, 75, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff under President Ronald Reagan and the first fighter pilot to serve as chief of the Air Force, died of Alzheimer's disease Sept. 4 at an assisted-living center in Arlington, Va.
Appointed to the Joint Chiefs in 1982, General Gabriel was part of a new generation of top commanders who entered the service after World War II and whose experience in Korea and Vietnam led them to take a cautious approach to the use of military power.
"Probably the most important lesson to come out of those wars, especially Vietnam," he said in an interview with The New York Times in 1983, "is that we never should fight a war that we don't intend to win."
A 1950 graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, he flew 100 combat missions in Korea, shooting down two MiG-15 fighters, and completed more than 150 missions in Vietnam. In the late 1970s, he was the deputy commander of U.S. forces in South Korea. Immediately before being named Air Force chief of staff, he was commander of the Air Force in Europe and commander of NATO air forces in Central Europe.
As a member of the Joint Chiefs, he advised President Reagan in a period of greatly increased military spending on undertakings including the Strategic Defense Initiative, or "Star Wars" program. He also advised the president on the invasion of Grenada and the crisis after the bombing of the Marine Corps barracks in Lebanon. He served until his retirement from the military in June 1986.
Marshall Jamison, 85, the first producer for the 1960s satirical review That Was the Week That Was on American television, died Sept. 2 in Orlando, Fla.
That Was the Week That Was, often known by the shorthand TW3, came to American television from Britain, where it had satirized the week's events. In the United States, the program was broadcast on NBC for two television seasons, beginning in 1964.
Though some critics said the American child lacked the sharp teeth of its British parent, the show was controversial in the United States, and Mr. Jamison found himself part of that controversy when it was abruptly announced in June 1964 that he was resigning as producer. He said then that he felt the network and the production company were wrong to try to make TW3 into "a popular, mass-appeal network show."
Mr. Jamison had come to television in the early 1950s from Broadway, where he had been a director and earlier an actor. From 1956 to 1958, he was executive producer of The U.S. Steel Hour, and he was co-producer with Leland Hayward of The Fabulous Fifties, which won an Emmy Award in 1960.
Arthur Kinoy, 82, a veteran civil rights lawyer who was involved in some of the 20th century's most celebrated cases, died of a heart attack Friday in Montclair, N.J.
Mr. Kinoy worked on the 1950s espionage trial of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. Other high-profile cases included the trial of eight anti-war activists charged with conspiring to incite riots at the 1968 Democratic Convention in Chicago.
He took on President Richard Nixon in 1972, arguing before the U.S. Supreme Court that the use of wiretaps was a violation of constitutional protections against unreasonable searches. He won that case and four others he argued before the court.
For much of the 1950s and 1960s, he worked on behalf of the civil rights movement in the South. In 1964, he joined the faculty at Rutgers University Law School, where he taught until his retirement in 1991.
In 1966, he helped found the Center for Constitutional Rights in New York, which is still active.
Simon Muzenda, 80, vice president of Zimbabwe and longtime loyal aide of its autocratic leader Robert G. Mugabe, died Saturday, state radio reported.
A one-time carpenter, he was one of the least-educated politicians in the ruling elite but was rewarded for his loyalty with high office that brought wealth and status. He was often ridiculed because of his humble origins and sometimes clumsy politicking.
Though Mr. Muzenda's death left President Mugabe without a trusted associate, it was not expected to change the political landscape in the troubled southern African country.
For his political activism against colonial rule, Mr. Muzenda spent most of the decade from 1962 to 1972 in prison or under colonial restriction orders curtailing his movements.
He fled into exile and joined Mr. Mugabe in the guerrilla war against the white government of Rhodesia, as Zimbabwe was then known.
After independence, Mr. Mugabe, then prime minister, appointed him deputy prime minister and foreign minister. Mr. Mugabe became executive president in 1987, naming Mr. Muzenda his first vice president.
Lord Gareth Williams of Mostyn, 62, the Labor Party's leader in Britain's upper chamber of Parliament, died Saturday, Prime Minister Tony Blair's office said. It did not report the cause of death.
Lord Williams was a former lawyer who was heavily involved in the debate to reform the upper chamber of Parliament, the House of Lords. He became a formidable figure in London's law courts before becoming a life peer in 1992.
He served as a spokesman on Northern Ireland between 1993 and 1997.