5761 ... just when we were getting used to writing 5760.
This Friday, Rosh Hashana ushers in a new year and the 10 High Holy Days when Jews are called upon to re-examine their lives -- to wake up and not only smell the roses, but also plant them for other people to enjoy. The holiday ends Oct. 9, with Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement. As the sun goes down, Jews greet each other with wishes for a bright future, and know that it's just a matter of moments until they can break their fast and -- eat.
One of the true miracles of Yom Kippur is the delicious food that magically appears on tables even though all the mamas and grandmas have been sitting in synagogue all day. But in recent years, the cooks have had a challenge because many favorite dishes -- chopped liver, blintzes and sour cream, lokshen kugel (made with gobs of cottage cheese, sour cream, butter and eggs) -- go against everything we've come to know about health and nutrition.
In response, creative Jewish cooks have started adapting traditional Jewish fare to fit a health-conscious lifestyle. "Healthy Jewish cooking is no longer an oxymoron," said rabbi and cookbook author Gil Marks.
One of the reasons that traditional Jewish cuisine is so high in fat and so low in fiber is that the recipes were developed in Eastern Europe by Ashkenazi Jews, who not only were poor, but also didn't have a variety of fruits, vegetables and herbs available to them. They created a cuisine made primarily of starch and "added copious amounts of schmaltz [rendered chicken fat], sugar and salt," to impart flavor, Marks said.
Marks modifies many traditional holiday recipes in his book "The World of Jewish Entertaining" (Simon & Schuster, 1998). Instead of emphasizing "big chunks of meat" as the Ashkenazi did, he uses meat sparingly, as a flavoring instead of as the main event. He also uses a lot of recipes from the Sephardim, Jews who migrated to areas as diverse as North and South Africa, the Middle East, India and, later, the Mediterranean, where, according to Marks, they use the three main products mentioned in the Bible -- grains, wine and olive oil.
As for traditional Ashkenazi foods, Marks suggests substituting yogurt for sour cream in blintzes, kugels and borscht, using olive oil instead of schmaltz for chopped liver -- and even eliminating the liver altogether by substituting vegetables such as mushrooms, onions and string beans.
Instead of stuffing chicken with oil-laden bread cubes, he suggests apples and spinach, both traditional for the New Year. His piM-hce de rM-isistance for the High Holidays is his Whole-Wheat Challah, which leaves out the eggs and extra fat, using whole wheat, wheat germ and honey to provide moisture. He also suggests sweetening dishes with fruit such as bananas and apples instead of sugar.
But, he cautions, "You've got to be smart with substitutions. Don't serve a dish just because it's low-fat. Experiment until you find the flavor you like. It's actually a very creative process."
Judy Zeidler, author of "The Gourmet Jewish Cook" (William Morrow, 1988) and "The 30-Minute Kosher Cook" (William Morrow, 1999), emphasizes eating light on Yom Kippur because it's easier on your system after fasting all day. She serves a plethora of salads, many of which combine fish with fruit and vegetables. One of her favorite combinations is smoked fish with cucumber, a refreshing dish that replenishes salts lost by fasting.
She also serves cold fruit soups with orange juice at their base, or vegetable soups such as fresh tomato and basil, which -- if you get them at their peak of flavor -- are a delight. Instead of traditional chicken liver, she sautM-is a smaller amount of liver with apples and mushrooms. And she uses a smaller amount of oil because the combination produces wonderful liquid in which to cook the liver, she says.
Another chopped-liver idea is from Selma Elaine Brown, food editor and Jewish recipe developer for cooking.com. She uses three pounds of onions for every pound of liver, then fries the onions in olive oil separately until they are caramelized and dark brown and the natural sugars are at their height of flavor. She drains off all the fat before combining them with the liver and never uses schmaltz, only olive oil.
Jewish chef and caterer David Rubell learned about food from the old country from the closest person to him -- his Nana Willner. Today when Rubell is doing a menu, he starts with the dishes his grandmother taught him, and then replaces them with healthier variations.
He replaces the customary sour-cream topping for the blintzes with fresh berry compote. Instead of sweet, heavy babkas (Jewish desserts) that "will lie in your stomach for the next three days," he serves a fresh peach cobbler, with a minimum amount of sugar and just a touch of butter.
Rubell invented savory Chinese Seared Ahi Tuna Salad as a substitute for tuna salad with gobs of mayo, and instead of the traditional sweet, heavy kugel, he serves a vegetable frittata.
According to Rubell, "We never forget our cultural traditions, but we're reinterpreting them for today's healthier lifestyles."
Holiday Cheese Blintzes Topped With a Trio of Fresh Berries
Makes 20 to 24 full-size blintzes
3 cups milk
1 1/4 cups all-purpose flour
1 teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon sugar
1/4 cup melted butter
1 pound hoop cheese
1 pound pot or farm cheese
1/2 teaspoon vanilla
1/3 cup sugar
1 teaspoon cinnamon
pinch of salt
2 cups sliced fresh strawberries
1/2 cup brown sugar
1/2 teaspoon vanilla
1 cup fresh raspberries
1 cup fresh blueberries
powdered sugar, if desired
To make pancakes: Add milk to flour, beating vigorously with wire whisk. In separate bowl, whisk together eggs, salt and sugar; add butter; whisk until smooth. Combine both mixtures. Beat until smooth.
Put small amount of oil or butter on a paper towel. Lightly wipe surface of an 8-inch nonstick pan. Pour 1/4 cup of batter into pan. Rotate pan until entire surface is thinly covered with batter. When edges are slightly browned, turn over with spatula; cook for a minute on other side. Stack pancakes until ready to use.
To make filling: Using electric mixer or by hand, blend cheeses with vanilla, sugar, cinnamon and salt.
To make topping: Combine strawberries, sugar and vanilla with just enough water to dissolve sugar. Barely bring to boil; shut off flame. Transfer to dish; allow to cool. Refrigerate. Just before serving, add raspberries and blueberries.
To assemble blintzes: Place pancake on dish; put 2 heaping tablespoons of filling on bottom half; fold edge of pancake over filling; tuck in sides so that it's trapped and roll up into a slim roll. SautM-i in lightly buttered nonstick skillet until golden brown. Transfer to baking dish; cover with plastic wrap and refrigerate. When ready to serve, remove wrap, heat in oven at 350 degrees for 10 to 15 minutes. Top with berry compote. If desired, sprinkle with powdered sugar.
-- David Rubell
Honey Whole-Wheat Challah
Makes 2 large or 3 medium loaves
two 1/4 -ounce packages active dry yeast or 1 1-ounce cake fresh yeast
2 1/4 cups warm water for yeast (see note)
1/3 to 1/2 cup honey
1/4 cup vegetable shortening or oil
1 tablespoon table salt or 4 1/2 teaspoons kosher salt
3 1/4 cups whole-wheat flour about 3 1/4 cups unbleached all-purpose flour
1 cup raisins or dried currants or 1/2 cup raisins and 1/2 cup chopped dried apricots or dates, optional
Dissolve yeast in 1/2 cup of water. Stir in teaspoon of honey; let stand until foamy, 5 to 10 minutes. Stir in remaining water, remaining honey, shortening, salt and whole-wheat flour. Beat in enough all-purpose flour, 1/2 cup at a time, to make a workable dough.
Place on a lightly floured surface; knead until smooth and elastic, 10 to 15 minutes. (Lightly oiling your hands before kneading makes whole-wheat dough more manageable.)
Knead in dried fruit, if desired. Place in greased large bowl, turning to coat. Cover loosely with plastic wrap or a towel; let rise in a warm, draft-free place until almost double in bulk, about 1 1/2 hours.
Punch down dough, divide in half or thirds. Shape into rounds or spirals and place on greased baking sheet. Cover loosely and let rise until double in bulk, about 1 hour. Preheat oven to 375, bake until bread is golden brown and sounds hollow when tapped on bottom, 35 to 45 minutes. Transfer to racks and let cool.
Note: If you use dry yeast, the water should be slightly warmer than for fresh yeast.
- From "The World of Jewish Entertaining" (Simon & Schuster, 1998)
Serves 8 to 10
1 smoked whitefish, approximately 2 pounds, carefully boned
1/3 to 1/2 cup mayonnaise (low-fat or regular)
1 bunch scallions, green part only, sliced thin
Pulse all ingredients in food processor until just smooth. Refrigerate. Serve as appetizer with crackers or challah, or as first course with baby greens and tomato. Smoked trout may be substituted for the whitefish.
- David Rubell