More than any war in U.S. history, the Civil War lays unique claim to the American psyche. None of its successor conflicts in the ensuing 135 years has been accorded a fraction of the glory, laud and honor bestowed by authors upon the war that rent this nation asunder.
Click on Amazon.com and find 8,000 Civil War titles. Barnes&Noble.com; offers nearly 7,000. Just last summer a new quarterly, Civil War Book Review, arrived on the scene to keep pace with the never-ending tide of literature.
"I thought it was kind of a crazy idea at first," says Michael Zibart, who publishes the review in conjunction with the U.S. Civil War Center at Louisiana State University. "Then I discovered that between 800 and 900 books on the Civil War had been published in the previous year."
Indeed there is an amazing stream of literature -- non-fiction, fiction, letters, diaries, journals, battlefield guides, histories of famous and not-so-famous military units -- that keeps flowing. Variations in quality can be considerable, given that some authors are rank amateurs, some books are merely lists of battlefield monuments and others are one step above vanity press family histories. But this is the war Americans never tire of reading about.
At the vanguard of the current wave of serious Civil War works is "Ulysses S. Grant: Triumph over Adversity, 1822-1865" (Houghton Mifflin, 576 pages, $35), the first installment of veteran Civil War author Brooks D. Simpson's two-volume biography.
Ulysses S. Grant? Don't we already know this story? He came, he fought, he won, he drank -- not necessarily in that order. Well, yes and no. While Simpson does not uncover startling new information, he develops new perspectives from a prodigious number of sources as he dissects and amplifies what we already knew -- or thought we knew -- about Grant. Along the way, he explores Grant's relationship with his father, his wife and children, his marriage into a slave-holding family and even his affliction with migraine headaches.
The book follows Grant from birth through Lincoln's assassination, but it is basically a chronicle of his Civil War exploits, from obscure adjutant general in the West to commander of all Union armies and victor over Robert E. Lee in the East.
Grant haters will be disappointed, as perhaps will his advocates, because Simpson neither villifies nor consecrates this unpretentious, plain-spoken Midwesterner. He addresses the drinking issue at length, concluding that Grant clearly could not handle alcohol but was generally successful in avoiding it, although there were occasions when he did not and the results were embarrassing but never disastrous. On military issues, "Grant the Butcher" comes off as much more of a tactician given to relentless attacks but preferring maneuver and conserving manpower.
Aside from biographies, tales of battles and tactics remain a staple of the Civil War genre. Although the results of these conflicts are well known, it doesn't seem to matter to authors or readers, who are always looking for one more insight or spirited retelling. With epic struggles such as Gettysburg and Antietam amply chronicled, more and more authors are carving off smaller slices of the action for analysis.
Gordon C. Rhea, for example, devotes an entire book to be published this spring, "To The North Anna River: Grant and Lee, May 13-25, 1864" (Louisiana State University Press, 475 pages, $34.95), to one small segment of the initial campaign between the two legendary generals. The third in a series of books on this campaign, Rhea's work is a masterfully told tale that uses so many eyewitness accounts that the action often comes to life right before your eyes.
James W. Wensyel takes a totally different approach with "Appomattox: The Passing of the Armies" (White Mane Books, 262 pages, $24.95), which also focuses on a sliver of time: March 31, when Lee is forced to abandon Richmond and Petersburg, through April 9, 1865, when he surrenders. A sequel to "Petersburg," by the same author, this is narrative history with dialogue attributed to historical characters and at least one fictitious narrator. It gets points for entertainment if not pure history.
The Civil War also continues to be a fertile ground for fiction. Howard Bahr, fresh from his critically acclaimed first novel, "The Black Flower" in 1998, will soon be out with "The Year of Jubilo" (Henry Holt and Co., 376 pages, $25), a moving account of the South just after surrender and before Reconstruction, a time of terror, turmoil and heartbreak.
From White Mane Publishing Co. Inc. in Shippensburg, Pa., which calls itself "America's Civil War publisher," comes a catalog bursting with new titles. There are attempts to plow new ground with books such as "Trial by Fire: Science, Technology and the Civil War" by Charles Ross (White Mane Books, 215 pages, $24.95). And there is a series of children's books called "The Young Americans" aimed at capturing the next generation of Civil War readers.
There is even "The Complete Book of Confederate Trivia" by J. Stephen Lang (Burd Street Press, 357 pages, $14.99), replete with more than 4,000 questions and answers on such burning topics as which general weighed 290 pounds and whose picture was on the first Confederate postage stamp.
Rarely, though, does a book so directly confront the mystique of the Civil War for many Americans as does "Southern Invincibility: A History of the Confederate Heart" (St. Martin's Press, 448 pages, $27.95), by award-winning author Wiley Sword.
Sword contends that despite what the history books say, "The Southern fighting man had prevailed in an ultimate sense. His virtue was far greater than his failings. The pride of sacrifice inspired a bold spirit in the new South -- that of a Southern moral invincibility."
Moral invincibility? That would come as a shock to the civil rights demonstrators of the 1960s and still others today. And yet the romance and myth of the Lost Cause partly answers the question of why the Civil War hold such sway over our imaginations and interests more than a century later. Americans love underdogs and lost causes, and the failed experiment of secession ranks as the No. 1 lost cause in American history.
But the answer is much more complex than that. First, it is rooted in the war's role as the ultimate defining moment for our country. The Civil War forged our destiny as a nation with steel and blood, spelling the end to an agrarian economy based on slavery and sending us hurtling into a new age of industrialism. Beyond that, this war is uniquely American. This conflict of national fratricide, the only war of its scale fought on our soil, is also the only war in our history in which Americans were truly and clearly vanquished, Sword's revisionist psychoanalysis aside.
Not only that, remnants of the divisions and scars of those terrible times still live among us. Why else would we be arguing over whether the Confederate flag should fly over the statehouse in Columbia, S.C.?
"There is something about the Civil War that penetrates our national conscience and psyche," says Morgan Knull, editor of the Civil War Book Review. "When we look at the Civil War we see many of the same questions that dominate our political discourse today -- questions about race, economics and tension between local identity and national identity. The same struggle to work out our common destiny as a nation resonates with us still."
Tom Linthicum is director of employment and organization development for The Sun. A journalist for more than 25 years, he is a Civil War enthusiast.
Pub Date: 02/27/00