RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, N.C. - The Marriott hotel chain runs America's biggest corporate welfare-to-work program, and many consider it America's best. It has been profiled on CBS, ABC, and CNN, as well as in Business Week, the Wall Street Journal and the Economist. President Clinton has hailed it as a national model.
So hopes were high when Marriott brought its Pathways to Independence program here last summer. It seemed like the ideal public-private partnership, helping women move from government checks to Marriott jobs. This, after all, was what Clinton meant when he urged the private sector to make welfare overhaul work.
But this time, the Marriott path to self-sufficiency led only to disappointment. A pool of 22 applicants in June was whittled down to four Pathways graduates by August. By December, Marriott had fired all four of those graduates; its five-figure investment had produced zero employees. If this is a national model, local officials say, then the nation has a problem.
'Going to get a lot harder'
"The scary thing is, Marriott selected these women. They were supposed to be the best of the best of the folks still on welfare," said Durham County welfare director Dan Hudgins. "It just shows that this is going to get a lot harder as we move further down the caseload. Some of these folks, I just don't know how we're going to move them into permanent jobs."
In North Carolina and nationwide, welfare rolls have dropped by a third since 1993, thanks partly to welfare overhauls and partly to the booming economy; early studies suggest that 50 to 60 percent of former recipients have found jobs.
But many specialists say that the easy work is done, that most of the single mothers who still depend on government largess have serious barriers to employment. Over half are high school dropouts, and a third have never held a job. Over half report a history of domestic abuse, and over a fourth say they are depressed. Many of them are nearing their two-year limit on benefits, and need to find a job soon.
Pathways to Independence has compiled an impressive record nationwide over the past eight years, moving more than 800 welfare recipients into entry-level jobs in 16 cities, with a 90 percent retention rate after three months and 65 percent after one year. Marriott is now accelerating the six-week training program, with classes in session in 11 more cities, and plans in place for classes in 13 others, including Boston and Springfield. This is supposed to reflect Marriott's philosophy of doing good while doing well, helping the community while helping the bottom line.
What went wrong?
So what went wrong in the Triangle? The immediate problem for several graduates was apparently transportation; none had cars, and all had trouble getting to work on time. Marriott managers also blame a lack of support by welfare officials, while the welfare officials blame a lack of commitment from Marriott managers.
But everyone seems to agree that even in a region with a severe labor shortage, moving welfare mothers into the permanent workforce is a severe challenge. The national attitude toward overhaul has been Work First - that is the actual name of North Carolina's welfare program - but there is a growing consensus that long-term recipients will need more intensive help before employers will want to hire them.
Last year, Marriott tried to cater a Pathways program in Washington to homeless welfare recipients, then abandoned the experiment after concluding the trainees needed more counseling and support than the company could give them. They simply had too many problems: with child care, domestic abuse, health care, transportation, alcoholism, and more.
"If it was just a matter of giving them a job, they wouldn't be on welfare in the first place," said Janet Tully, who oversees the Pathways program for Marriott. "Most of the women who are still on welfare have some incredibly serious challenges in their lives. Drug problems. No job skills. Low self-esteem. You can't just wave a magic wand and make them independent."
Durham County officials never expected a magic wand, but they did see Pathways as a neat fix to a political mess. The county had been relying on long-term training and even college work to prepare recipients for the Triangle's high-tech labor market, and while some women found excellent jobs, the county's caseload reductions lagged well behind the state's. "We were under heavy pressure," Hudgins recalls. "Pathways seemed like a godsend."
The state agreed to pay Marriott $2,600 per participant, about half the cost of the program, and Marriott agreed to provide 180 hours of training. Two-thirds of it was on-the-job training, following around Marriott employees at work. The other third was classroom training in general skills like punctuality, grooming, money management, customer service, and conflict resolution.
"Most of us take these things for granted," said Jason Hendricksen, room operations manager at the Research Triangle Park Marriott, the six-story stucco hotel where the training was held. "But you have to teach these people to make a bed. You have to teach them to smile all the time. You have to teach them to call if they're running late. It's not natural."
Marriott initially accepted about half the 22 applicants, but screened out all but five because of bad references or failed drug tests. One was later forced to quit the program because of pregnancy complications. But the four other students seemed like sure-fire successes. None of them had reported histories of drug abuse, domestic violence, or mental illness. All of them had high school diplomas, at least some job experience, and a clear desire to get off welfare and onto Marriott's payroll.
"These women really wanted to make it," said Alberta Barrett, a Durham County social worker who often drove the women to their training sessions. "They'd talk about their dream houses, their new cars. They were so focused on graduation."
Graduation was held in the hotel ballroom last Aug. 3, and it was a joyous affair, complete with balloons and streamers, shrimp cocktail and chocolate cake. All four graduates made grateful speeches to a crowd of about 75 relatives, friends, and Marriott associates. North Carolina magazine even ran a photo of one of the graduates in its September issue, for a story about successful public-private welfare-to-work partnerships.
'A real letdown'
"They were so excited to learn, so pumped up to go to work," recalled Lissa Williams, the hotel's human resources manager. "It's a real letdown, what happened."
Three graduates were hired at the Marriott; as a housekeeper, a telephone operator, and a waiter. The fourth began work as a desk clerk in a nearby Residence Inn. But once the program was over, Barrett could no longer provide transportation, and public transit in the Raleigh-Durham area is notoriously thin. Neither welfare officials nor hotel managers would say much because of confidentiality rules, but tardiness and absences were clearly problems, and in December, all four women were let go.
Durham County has lost track of one graduate; she could be working, living out of state, or falling through the cracks. Two others receive food stamps; officials do not know if they have jobs. The fourth, Janet Yarborough, the only graduate who was interviewed, landed a $6.50-an-hour job last week as a cafeteria cook and should be leaving welfare soon. "I'm real surprised it didn't work out for any of us," Yarborough said. "We were all determined to hang on, but it's not always easy. I just wish I could have hung in there."
Originally, Yarborough was scheduled to work at 8 a.m. as a housekeeper. But she couldn't, because her 8-year-old daughter Aneshia had to catch her school bus at 8:10. Her boss cut her a break, but even when her bus came on time, a rare occurrence, she was an hour late. Once, when Aneshia's bus was behind schedule, Yarborough decided she had to leave to catch her own bus. The girl ended up spending the day outside in the rain.
Yarborough, 38, once spent eight years as a machine operator at a drapery factory before she was laid off. She worked two more years at a dry cleaner. She has two years of education at a technical college. By national standards, after five years of caseload reductions, she is among the welfare elite.
Pub Date: 5/14/98