Anyone who believes that our national holiday food fest
begins with Thanksgiving, continues through Hanukkah and crests at Christmas has never celebrated Kwanzaa. This seven-day event, which extends from Dec. 26 through Jan. 1, lends a new dimension to food and fellowship.
Kwanzaa was launched in California during the turbulent '60s by Ron Karenga -- then a militant committed to the cause of African-American unity -- to instill a sense of racial pride after the riots in the Watts section of Los Angeles.
The word itself is Swahili and borrows from an African celebration of the first harvest. Kwanzaa is, in fact, a compilation of several harvest festivals held across the African continent.
Although it is a time of feasting, Kwanzaa is also a time of fasting and self-examination. The seven-day observation has seven principles at its foundation, each of which is discussed with the daily meal. They are: unity; self-determination; collective work and responsibility; cooperative economics; purpose; creativity; and faith.
And where Kwanzaa was once considered a celebration held mainly in the homes of family and friends, it is increasingly recognized as an institutionalized event -- observed in churches and cultural centers as well.
But even those who participate in large public gatherings enjoy having friends at home. Bandele and Akwete Tyehimba are among them. Their Kwanzaa gathering usually includes 20 to 30 people. They use the occasion to meet new people and to get closer to those they already know.
"We discuss the principle of the day," Mr. Tyehimba says. "If it's on collective economics, we talk about that and everyone must contribute. That way we get a feeling, an understanding of what's important to us. That way everyone feels like they are taking part.
"Normally, we're involved with several people who have meals on different evenings. Some might have two days, another might have all seven days. One group might sponsor one day, and another group might sponsor two or three days."
The Tyehimbas have been celebrating Kwanzaa since 1977.
"We have a lot of different things; it's sort of like Thanksgiving, but without the turkey." says Mr. Tyehimba, who likes to cook. Instead, there are ethnic dishes such as Jollof rice and plantains -- and some Mr. Tyehimba doesn't even know the names of.
"We include friends from different countries -- South Africa, Ethiopia, Kenya -- a kind of pan-African mix," he says. "People bring dishes that represent what they might eat in their own countries. For example, a friend from Liberia brought a spinach dish that's the ugliest-looking thing you've ever seen, but so good it made me start eating spinach.
"Another friend from Gambia makes a fish dish that had people licking the pot." It's the kind of food you want to eat. I guess that's where they got the term 'finger-licking good.' "
Like many ethnic groups, African-Americans have a collection of cherished traditional foods. Even those who have abandoned such standards as ham hocks in favor of smoked turkey still cling mightily to standbys such as collard greens, black-eyed peas, rice, salmon croquettes, spareribs and short ribs.
Author Angela Shelf Medearis devotes her engaging work, "A Kwanzaa Celebration" (Dutton, $17.95), exclusively to mouth-watering recipes augmented by quotations from prominent past and present black artists, politicians and statesmen.
Jessica Harris' "A Kwanzaa Keepsake" (Simon & Schuster, $22) not only provides recipes, it includes valuable bits of black history, family cooking projects and blank pages to record family favorites.
"There are as many different types of Kwanzaa as there are types of families in the African-American community," says Ms. Harris, who lives in Brooklyn, N.Y. "Wherever we have stepped, our transformational skills have changed the country and the hemisphere in domains as wide-ranging as retail sales, cooking, music and language. In our world, there's always room for improvisation, and each celebration brings something else to the kaleidoscope of possibilities that is the holiday."
Spicy three-cheese macaroni and cheese
Makes 6 servings
1 1/2 cups medium elbow macaroni
2 tablespoons unsalted butter
2 tablespoons flour
3/4 cup milk
3/4 cup freshly grated extra-sharp Cheddar cheese (divided use)
1/2 cup freshly grated pepper jack cheese (divided use)
1/4 cup freshly grated Parmesan cheese (divided use)
1 teaspoon hot sauce or to taste
salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste
1/4 cup fine dry bread crumbs
Heat oven to 350 degrees. Lightly grease a 1 1/2 -quart baking dish. Cook macaroni according to package directions until tender but still firm. Drain and place it in greased casserole dish. Set aside and keep warm.
Melt the butter over medium heat in a small saucepan and whisk in the flour. Cook for 2 minutes or until mixture is thick and pasty. Gradually drizzle in milk, whisking constantly, and cook 7 to 8 minutes or until sauce is thick. Remove sauce from heat but keep warm.
Reserve 1 tablespoon of each of cheeses in small bowl. Add remaining cheese to sauce and stir until smooth. (You may have to return saucepan to the stove over low heat to heat the cheeses.) Add hot sauce and season to taste. Pour sauce over macaroni in casserole and stir well.
Add bread crumbs to 3 tablespoons reserved cheese, mix well and sprinkle mixture over top of macaroni.
Bake 35 to 40 minutes or until bubbly and lightly browned on top. Serve hot.
Per serving: 239 calories; 14 g fat; 41 mg cholesterol; 425 mg sodium; 54 percent calories from fat
Home-style collards with spicy vinegar
Makes 6 servings
4 pounds young, leafy collard greens
4 strips bacon
1 small ham hock
6 cups water
salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste
1 onion, minced
spicy vinegar (recipe follows)
Place greens in sink of cold water and wash thoroughly. Cut out discolored spots and fibrous central stem on all but smallest leaves.
LTC Cook bacon in bottom of large stockpot; remove strips and reserve for other use. Add greens, ham hock and water, and bring to boil. Lower heat and cook 2 hours or longer, adding water as necessary. Greens are ready when meat of ham hock falls off bone and greens are tender. Season and serve. Serve with onions and spicy vinegar.
Note: Don't discard liquid in which greens cooked. It should be served with greens and savored like soup.
Spicy vinegar: Scald a pint bottle either with boiling water or by running it through the dishwasher. Scrape a carrot; cut it into thin strips and place strips in scalded bottle. Also place in the bottle: 1 ( 1/2 -inch) piece of ginger, 4 sprigs fresh thyme, 3 cloves garlic and 1 small piece habanero or other hot chili. Add 1 pint cider vinegar and cork the bottle. Allow vinegar to stand for at least 1 week. The intensity of the vinegar will increase over time.
Per serving: 173 calories; 11 g fat; 21 mg cholesterol; 586 mg sodium; 53 percent calories from fat
Black-eyed pea soup with smoked turkey
Makes 6 servings
1 1/4 cups dried black-eyed peas (about 10 ounces)
2 tablespoons vegetable oil
1 large onion, chopped
1 teaspoon minced garlic
1 cup chopped green bell pepper
5 cups chicken stock
1 bay leaf
1 teaspoon salt
1/4 teaspoon dried red pepper flakes
3/4 cup diced smoked turkey
6 teaspoons sour cream (optional)
fresh cilantro sprigs for garnish
Place black-eyed peas in large bowl and cover them with cold water. Soak overnight. Drain peas, rinse thoroughly and set aside to drain again.
Heat oil in large saucepan over medium-high heat, and saute onions and garlic until soft. Add peas, bell pepper, chicken stock, bay leaf, salt and red pepper flakes. Cover and bring to boil.
Reduce heat and simmer 1 hour or until beans are tender. Stir in smoked turkey and simmer for another 15 minutes. Remove and discard bay leaf; top each serving with teaspoon of sour cream and sprig of cilantro, if desired.
Note: To turn this soup into a side dish, use 2 cups of chicken stock and delete sour cream. Makes about 4 cups.
Per serving: 279 calories; 7 g fat; 14 mg cholesterol; 1,023 mg sodium; 24 percent calories from fat
Pub Date: 12/25/96