Bumped. It's a dreaded word for most airline passengers. But, for savvy travelers with a little extra time on their hands, getting bumped can be a bonanza.
With record numbers of people flying on fewer planes, ticketed passengers are more likely to get bumped since airlines routinely overbook. Before they involuntarily bump passengers, airlines must seek volunteers, however.
To entice passengers to trade their seat on a plane for one in the airport waiting lounge, carriers offer sometimes irresistible incentives: free tickets, frequent flier points, even cash. As a result, more and more travelers are rushing to the gate to become volunteer "bumpees."
"It's a scheme that's growing among passengers, but it's working out for everyone," said David Stempler, president of AirTrav Advisors, a Washington-based air travel consultant firm. "In the old days, the last person who got to the gate was denied boarding."
Overbooking and bumping are not illegal. Airlines know that a certain percentage of ticketed passengers -- particularly those with fully refundable tickets -- won't show up. To make sure that their planes are as full as possible, all airlines overbook flights.
Because carriers have improved their calculations about no-shows and boosted their volunteer rate, there's actually less risk today that passengers will be bumped involuntary. Since 1990, the number of passengers involuntarily bumped by major U.S. airlines has dropped to 48,665 from 57,441, while the number of volunteers jumped by nearly a quarter of a million -- to 793,747 from 547,540.
"People understand this is a good deal," said David Castelveter, a spokesman for USAir Group Inc., the parent company of USAir, the largest carrier at Baltimore-Washington International Airport. "The flight can be virtually empty and somebody will walk up and say, 'Are you taking volunteers?' " Volunteering is definitely not for everyone, particularly those on a tight schedule who need to make appointments or important flight connections. But often, passengers have the luxury of getting bumped.
"Only one out of five times does a couple hours make a difference to me," said Gregg Somerville, a Wilmington, Del., stockbroker who has picked up seven or eight free, round-trip tickets during the past five years.
"If it looks crowded, I'll always volunteer," he said. "There's usually no shortage of volunteers."
Occasionally, volunteering can pay off exceptionally well. When Ann Benya, a Los Angeles data-processing consultant, was scheduled to fly to Baltimore last year, she received a free round trip ticket from United Airlines after giving up her seat.
"I went to the next available flight, but it was overbooked, too," said Benya, who volunteered a second time to be bumped. "I walked away with money and tickets coming out of every pocket."
While overbooking isn't illegal, federal regulations outline penalties that airlines must pay involuntarily bumped passengers.
The rules do not apply to those traveling on commuter flights with 60 or fewer passengers, though USAir and others have chosen to use the same compensation policy for both.
Involuntarily bumped travelers are entitled to an on-the-spot cash payment of up to $400 -- depending on the ticket value and the length of delay -- plus hotel, phone calls and meals.
"Airlines don't like to pay; they'd much rather get a volunteer," said Bill Mosley, a spokesman for the U.S. Department of Transportation. And the practice of luring volunteers with free tickets has grown substantially in recent years with airlines strapped for cash.
Low-fare carriers tend to bump passengers most often. Southwest Airlines -- which prints "We Overbook" on its ticket jacket -- has the highest involuntary bumping rate in the airline industry, 3.43 per 10,000 passengers last year. Northwest had ,, the lowest rate at 0.34 per 10,000.
While the Department of Transportation regulates what airlines must pay involuntarily bumped passengers, it doesn't provide guidelines about voluntary bumping. Typically, airlines take volunteers on a first-come-first-served basis.
"I get there early, make sure I hang out right at the gate and I say, 'If this plane is overbooked, are you looking for volunteers?' " said Tom Parsons, publisher of Best Fares Discount Travel magazine in Dallas, who was bumped 11 times last year.
"It's a science; it's an art," he said. "It's worth thousands of dollars to me, and the only inconvenience is figuring out what to do for two hours."
Incentives vary from airline to airline, Parsons said. Most give free round-trip tickets on domestic flights and cash for international flights.
Occasionally, the need for volunteers can spark a bidding war. Parsons recalled a recent flight for which the airline couldn't get enough volunteers by offering one free ticket.
"So they upped the ante to two free tickets and it was like a stampede time to get off the plane," he said.
Parsons and other travel advisers offer these tips to those wishing to increase their chances of getting bumped:
Book flights in heavily traveled markets. Because no-shows tend to be more numerous in resort markets, such as Las Vegas, or business markets, such as Baltimore to Boston, those destinations are most heavily overbooked. Overbooking is also more common in markets with multiple daily flights, such as Baltimore to Chicago, because airlines figure they can put bumped passengers on a subsequent flight without significant delays.
Book flights during the most popular times, such as Friday afternoon, Sunday night or Monday morning. Even better, try to travel during the holidays, such as Thanksgiving, Christmas or New Year's Day, when airlines are certain to overbook. The time of day can be important, with midday better since passengers booked on early flights could be shifted to ones later in the day if a flight is oversold or delayed by mechanical problems.
Call in advance for seating assignment. When the airline says it can't assign you a seat because it's under airport control, that's a tip-off that the flight is overbooked.
Get to the gate up to two hours before departure time. Ask if the flight is oversold and if they are seeking volunteers. Put your name on the list of volunteers and post yourself near the check-in counter.
If selected, accept the free ticket or bargain for more if the airline doesn't get enough volunteers. Ask about free meals and phone calls while you're waiting.
If you give up your seat, don't assume you'll have to fly standby. Ask what's the next flight you can be confirmed on and get a new boarding pass. If the airline offers to fly you standby on another flight, you could get stranded.
Typically, free tickets issued to volunteer "bumpees" have restrictions, similar to those of frequent-flier coupon tickets. USAir, for instance, issues only non-negotiable, nontransferable tickets that must be used within a year. They have no cash value and there are black-out dates.
If an airline fails to get enough volunteers, it may deny boarding, typically affecting passengers who checked in last. Federal regulations don't require airlines to compensate passengers who can be flown to their destination within an hour of the originally scheduled landing time.
If you are delayed two hours on a domestic flight, or up to four on an international flight, an airline must pay you 100 percent of the value of a one-way ticket to your destination, up to a maximum of $200. If you are delayed longer, you're entitled to 200 percent of the ticket value up to $400.
Most airlines, however, try to give free tickets to passengers involuntarily bumped. "The number of people who are compensated in cash is negligible compared to tickets given away," said Castelveter of USAir. "Most people take the ticket. They say, 'I was only going from Boston to Philadelphia, but now VTC I can go from Boston to L.A.' "
USAir flew 56.6 million passengers last year, bumping 89,188 voluntarily and 7,637 involuntarily. Neither USAir nor the other airlines will reveal how much they spend to compensate passengers bumped involuntarily. But airlines, like passengers, clearly prefer the voluntary system.
"It just works out better for everybody," said Castelveter.
Pub Date: 8/25/96