If it's summertime, the music must be Mozart.
Ever since 1966, when New York's Lincoln Center started its Mostly Mozart Festival, the composer's works have become a summer industry, as one orchestra after another has copied the formula.
And for good reason: no other composer's music works as well in these languid months.
The Baltimore Symphony Orchestra learned that in 1992 when -- because of recording commitments -- it programmed almost nothing except Rachmaninov and Copland. One look at the disastrous box-office receipts and the cry of "Never again!" resounded from the corner of Cathedral and Preston streets.
It's been mostly Mozart ever since, and only Mozart tomorrow night in Meyerhoff Hall when the BSO's Summer MusicFest concludes with an all-Mozart program.
But why Mozart?
Summer is the lazy season, and Mozart is the perfect composer for the indolent.
Before Mozart's time, music was tied to the function, time and audience for which it was written.
Mozart -- and his somewhat older contemporary, Haydn -- may have been the first to write music that was apt for its time and place, yet that was also able to transcend them and have meaning for later generations.
It is at once easily accessible and also filled with thought-provoking layers that repay serious listening and repeated hearings. Of no other composer's music is this as true.
The same Mozart string quartet can serve for intense listening or as background music at a cocktail party. Try using a late Beethoven quartet for the latter purpose and be prepared for your guests to leave early.
Appealing to both the musically sophisticated and the uninitiated was something Mozart strove to do. Of his first three piano concertos for Vienna (K. 413, K. 414 and K. 415), Mozart wrote to his father: "These concertos are a happy medium between what is too easy and too difficult. There are passages here and there from which connoisseurs alone can derive satisfaction; but these passages were written in such a way that the less-learned cannot fail to be pleased, though without knowing why."
But much the same thing could be said about much of Haydn's music; the extraordinary appeal exerted by Mozart is complicated by sociological and psychological factors that have very little to do with music.
In the 19th century, Mozart's reputation was as high -- not less than 50 plays were written about him -- as that of Bach, Haydn and Beethoven.
But the looming shadow he casts over the repertory is a phenomenon that was created during the 20th century, particularly its latter half.
In the mid- and late 19th century, Mozart performances were rare. Only three of his operas -- "Don Giovanni," "The Marriage of Figaro" and "The Magic Flute" -- were performed with any regularity. The repertory of the Vienna Philharmonic between 1848 and 1910 shows performances of only seven of his symphonies, three serenades, two overtures, five piano concertos and two violin concertos. His music was considered mannered and dated.
And as late as 1956, during the worldwide celebration of the bicentennial of Mozart's birth, the Swiss composer, Arthur Honegger, complained that "Mozart is not particularly appreciated by the audiences, and not particularly well-known."
Record catalogs from that time reveal only the last three symphonies as being readily available in first-rate performances. Decent performances of most of the great piano concertos were also rare.
How dramatically the situation had changed by the bicentennial of Mozart's death in 1991.
A set from Philips, for example, contained every work Mozart had written -- 145 discs for $1,669.99, in 45 volumes, available separately or packaged together in two large boxes, with plastic handles, like giant boxes of laundry detergent.
By the end of 1992, sales of the performances in that set had reached the extraordinary figure of 9 million discs. If Mozart could visit a modern record emporium, he would no doubt be pleased by how many more bins his discs occupy than those of "Papa" Haydn and -- were he to browse under "S" -- how little by Salieri.
But that Salieri is there is a consequence of Mozart's popularity -- or at least of the industry that has sprung up about him.
In the approximately 15 years between the late 1960s and early '80s, the movie "Elvira Madigan," which used the slow movement of Mozart's Concerto No. 21 for its score, Peter Shaffer's play "Amadeus," and then Milos Forman's film version of it helped make Mozart an even bigger cultural icon than Beethoven.
He even played a part in an international agreement signed between Austria and Germany in 1981, whereby only Austria was allowed to export Mozart Kugel and only Germany Westphalian ham.
Appreciating Mozart and his music had become a status symbol of sorts. And the film "Amadeus" had made him easy to like -- he was just an average guy, who had trouble meeting the rent, was given to cursing (scatological wordplay was a particular favorite) and to chasing girls.
As for his genius -- that was an accident of having been chosen by God as His instrument.
The popular image of Mozart was an extended snapshot of the sort that is now being accorded Olympic athletes on TV or is regularly found in popular magazines in accounts of male heartthrobs or sexy, leggy teen-age girls in the latest movies.
His music began to become popular around the turn of the last century in "the back to Mozart" movement -- just as new music, particularly that written under the influence of Wagner, was becoming ever more complex and harder to understand.
Mozart was the antidote to modernism, and he has become the most popular composer in what we regularly refer to as our post-modernist age.
Other composers hurt
But the popularity of his music may not augur well for other composers. In the last 10 BSO seasons, there has been a great deal of Mozart, but very little Bartok, Hindemith and Britten and even less Berg, Schoenberg and Webern.
Some of these composers may be harder to appreciate than the contemporary composers the orchestra regularly performs, but they have a genuine musical profile and make a powerful impact.
Hope may be on the horizon. This summer, Lincoln Center -- because audiences at Mostly Mozart had begun to shrink -- partially replaced it with a new festival that gave listeners a chance to hear rarely heard works by Berlioz, Beethoven's opera "Fidelio" in its almost forgotten first version, "Leonore," and unfamiliar music by 19th-century and 20th-century Russian composers.
And earlier this summer, Pinchas Zukerman, the new music director of Summer MusicFest, spoke about what he perceived as a need to change its programs.
If Mozart were alive, it's likely he'd approve. He would, no doubt, appreciate the receipts from his performances and recordings. But he never listened to music written more than two centuries before he composed his.
And while he'd probably tell us that he would have appreciated the opportunity to have done so himself, it's also likely that he'd say it was downright dumb -- even in the summer -- to listen to nothing else.
Great Mozart recordings
1. "The Classical Novaes": Performances by Guiomar Novaes of Mozart's Concertos Nos. 9 and 20, and Sonatas Nos. 5, 11 and 15. Vox Box Legends 2-CDX-25512.
2. "Mozart Portraits": Performances by Cecilia Bartoli of arias from selected operas and sacred music. London 443452.
3. "The Marriage of Figaro": sung by Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, Anna Moffo, Eberhard Wachter, Giuseppe Taddei, with Carlo Maria Giulini conducting the Philharmonia Orchestra. EMI CDMB 4. "Don Giovanni": sung by Suzanne Danco, Lisa della Casa, Cesare Siepi, Anton Dermota and Fernando Corena, with Joseph Krips conducting the Vienna Philharmonic. London 3-411626.
5. "The Magic Flute": sung by Tiana Lemnitz, Erna Berger, Irma Beilke, Helge Rosvaenge, Heinrigh Tessmer, Gerhard Husch, Wilhelm Strienz, with Thomas Beecham conducting the Berlin Philharmonic. Nimbus 2-NI 7827/8.
What: Baltimore Symphony Orchestra's Summer MusicFest V: All-Mozart program
When: 7:30 p.m. tomorrow
Where: Joseph Meyerhoff Symphony Hall, 1212 Cathedral St.
Call: (410) 783-8000
Pub Date: 8/01/96