Today in history: Oct. 7
In 1765, the Stamp Act Congress convened in New York to draw up colonial grievances against England.
In 1777, the second Battle of Saratoga began during the American Revolution. The British forces, under Gen. John Burgoyne, surrendered 10 days later.
In 1849, author Edgar Allan Poe died in Baltimore at age 40.
In 1868, Cornell University was inaugurated in Ithaca, N.Y.
In 1940, Artie Shaw and his Orchestra recorded Hoagy Carmichael's "Stardust" for RCA Victor.
In 1954, Marian Anderson became the first black singer hired by the Metropolitan Opera Company in New York.
In 1960, Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy and Republican opponent Richard M. Nixon held the second of their broadcast debates.
In 1968, the Motion Picture Association of America adopted its film-rating system, ranging from "G" for "general" audiences to "X" for adult patrons only.
In 1979, Pope John Paul II concluded his weeklong tour of the United States with a Mass on the Washington Mall.