HARPERS FERRY, W.Va. -- The monument to a black man killed during John Brown's pre-Civil War raid on this hillside hamlet is back in public view. So is controversy that has dogged the rectangular, 6-foot piece of granite since 1931.
This time, the controversy is about an effort to end the controversy.
The monument was erected by the Sons of the Confederate Veterans and the United Daughters of the Confederacy to honor Heyward Shepherd, a Baltimore and Ohio Railway Co. worker who was shot fatally during the early hours of the raid when he failed to obey a raider's command to halt.
Shepherd, a free black, was killed during Brown's raid to arm the slaves for an uprising. The raid on this picturesque town on the banks of the Potomac River across from Maryland was one of the most publicized events that eventually led to the Civil War.
When the monument was dedicated 64 years ago, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People immediately criticized it, saying that its wording misleadingly depicted slavery in positive terms and wrongly interpreted the sentiments of blacks, including Shepherd, in pre-Civil War times.
Part of the monument's inscription reads:
"To Heyward Shepherd, exemplifying the character and faithfulness of thousands of negroes who under many temptations throughout subsequent years of war, so conducted themselves that no stain was left upon a record which is the peculiar heritage of the American People, and an everlasting tribute to the best in both races."
That controversy died down, and no one apparently paid much attention to the monument. In the mid-1970s, the granite was removed during restoration of nearby buildings. It was returned in 1981 but, within hours, was covered because of criticism of its subject matter and fear of vandalism, said Don Campbell,
superintendent at Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.
In recent years, Southern heritage groups pressured the park service to uncover the monument once again.
Some historians agreed the monument should be visible. But park officials uncovered the monument June 9, after placing a small interpretive plaque nearby.
The plaque explains who Shepherd was and why the monument was erected.
It also includes a tribute to John Brown written by W. E. B. DuBois, an educator and author who helped form the Niagara Movement, a forerunner of the NAACP.
The poem reads:
aimed at human slavery
that woke a guilty nation.
With him fought
seven slaves and sons of slaves.
Over his crucified corpse
marched 200,000 black soldiers
and 4,000,000 freedmen
4 'John Brown's body lies a moldering in the grave
but his soul goes marching on!' "
Park officials included the tribute because DuBois wrote it about the time the monument was dedicated, and it represented an African-American's opinion of Brown.
"We believe the monument is history," Mr. Campbell said. "It's controversial, but it's history that occurred here at Harpers Ferry. What we have there now is a wayside exhibit with information that puts the monument in the context of its time. It's factual, minimal in words, and it's accurate."
But members of the Sons of Confederate Veterans and the United Daughters of the Confederacy have criticized the plaque, contending such monuments need no interpretation.
"The monument speaks for itself," said Elliott Cummings, commander of the Maryland division of the Sons of Confederate Veterans. "The park service had no right to put up an interpretive plaque. Do we have interpretive plaques at the Lincoln %o Memorial? Do people who oppose the Vietnam War get a plaque by the Vietnam Wall? Where does this concept of putting up interpretive plaques stop?"
The controversy surfaced long before the monument was even erected. The United Daughters of the Confederacy debated for two decades a monument to honor "the faithful slave" before joining with the Sons of Confederate Veterans to build the Heyward Shepherd Memorial. They chose Shepherd because he was a victim of what they believed was Brown's misguided attack on Southern life.
And NAACP criticism of the monument continues, as James Tolbert, president of the West Virginia branches of the NAACP, noted in an interview.
"Many of us would like to see that boulder carried out to the Potomac River at its deepest point and dropped," Mr. Tolbert said. "We don't for one minute accept any interpretation of the mood of slaves or free men during that time period by the Daughters of Confederacy or the Sons of Confederate Veterans.
"What they were trying to do in 1931 is define for generations the mood of black people. It's not history."
Mr. Tolbert made the same argument against the new park service effort: "We don't believe the interpretive plaque is in any way sufficient. W. E. B. DuBois and others were disturbed at the placement of the [monument] in Harpers Ferry. We would like [it] removed. It's not history."
On the other hand, Harriett Elizabeth Nichols Binkley, honorary president of the West Virginia Division of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, said she believes critics are misguided.
"I don't think the monument -- without the plaque -- is harmful to the NAACP or anyone else," said Mrs. Binkley, whose great-grandfather helped guard John Brown after his capture. "I'm glad they've put it back up -- we felt it was long overdue. This is a piece of history, and it's so important today. We need to bring out the true history. We've been after [the park service] for years to put it back."
One recent afternoon, the Heyward Shepherd monument, on a less-traveled street parallel to the Potomac River, attracted little attention, with most visitors stopping only to read a few lines.
"We've had upward of 50,000 to 70,000 visitors this summer, many of whom have gone by that monument and plaque, looked at it and seem to be satisfied with the way its presented," Mr. Campbell said.
A couple of those taking a closer look had other thoughts.
"I think the monument is kind of offensive," said Tim Baxter, a Civil War buff visiting from Ohio. "I think it's kind of weird -- it sounds almost like the South is trying to strike back at the North. It smacks of racism then and of racism now."
Steven Karmi, a graduate of the Johns Hopkins University who was traveling though Harpers Ferry on his way to New Mexico, also found the monument offensive.
"I think it's kind of embarrassing," he said. "The preamble reads innocent enough but the other wording contains embarrassing anachronisms. I think it's just cause for its removal."