Ian Ballantine, 79, a prolific publisher who founded three major paperback companies and believed that people would read a variety of books if they were affordable and accessible, died Thursday of a heart attack in Bearsville, N.Y. He and his wife, Betty, launched Penguin U.S.A. in 1939, reprinting imported classics.
They left Penguin in 1945 to start Bantam Books, where their first list included "Life on the Mississippi" by Mark Twain, "The Grapes of Wrath" by John Steinbeck and "The Great Gatsby" by F. Scott Fitzgerald.
In 1952, they formed Ballantine books, which concentrated on paperback originals by such authors as Ray Bradbury and Arthur C. Clarke. Random House bought the company in 1974, and the Ballantines rejoined Bantam, working on books by such authors as Chuck Yeager and Shirley MacLaine.
They also worked under the name Rufus Publications, which specialized in art and fantasy books.
Yisrael Galili, 72, who invented the Galil submachine gun and helped create Israel's Uzi submachine gun, died Thursday in Jerusalem after suffering a heart attack.