Rare are the medieval scholars who can claim that their publications are whisked from stores and put to immediate and personal use by non-academics.
Fewer still can say that their books receive comment from serious liturgical journals as well as Garry Trudeau's comic strip "Doonesbury."
Yale University historian John Boswell can.
In a book published last month, the medievalist cites ancient documents in an effort to prove that early Christianity, before it evolved into separate churches, sanctioned -- and celebrated -- homosexual marriage.
His claim has brought to high pitch a debate being waged from Baltimore to Honolulu over the issue of gay marriage. And the book has been met with reactions from delight to scorn: Already, several academics and church leaders have denounced Dr. Boswell's work as specious.
Nonetheless, the book, "Same-Sex Unions in Premodern Europe," (Villard Books, $25) is in its fourth printing, 32,000 copies overall. As it flies out of bookstores, church leaders are poring over manuscripts, scholars are hastily translating documents -- and some gays and lesbians are rushing to the altar.
"For an expensive book, we are selling it at quadruple the pace of an equally priced book, and in a frugal city like Baltimore, that's saying a lot," says Jack Garman, manager of Lambda Rising, a gay bookstore here. "I know some couples who used it and other books for their holy unions so it's much more than a historical curiosity in our community, it's inspirational."
Dr. Boswell's explosive pronouncement comes amid widespread discussions about same-sex unions in both the secular and religious world.
Last spring, Hawaii passed legislation to prohibit the legalization of same-sex marriages. In recent months, the pope has, on several occasions, vehemently condemned homosexual activity. And, at an Aug. 24 convention, leaders of the Episcopal Church, who are pondering both ordination and marriage of gays, will issue a long-awaited report that will address homosexuality.
To the flurry of criticism, Dr. Boswell, who is gravely ill, says simply: "I expected that people would have trouble believing this." He points out that his book includes the English and Greek versions of some ceremonies and adds, "Let them read it and see."
Dr. Boswell's intellectual abilities are not at issue: Even his harshest critics describe the 47-year-old as "brilliant." He speaks or reads Arabic, Old Church Slavonic, Greek, Latin, Portuguese, Hebrew, Spanish, Catalan and Old Icelandic, among other languages.
In 1980, his book, "Christianity, Social Tolerance and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century" won the American Book Award.
The professor, who is himself gay, also has written books about "outgroups of society" -- abandoned children in the Middle Ages as well as Jews. "I could personally identify with them," he says.
Although his speech is slurred by his illness, which he describes as a "brain infection," Dr. Boswell is witty, personable and eager to talk about his book. His fervor for religion and history began early, he says. As a high school student in Petersburg, Va., he studied Hebrew and converted from the Episcopal to the Catholic Church. Even then, he says, "I was a historian and it struck me that this was the only [Christian] church that could claim to go all the way back."
The premise of his most recent book is that for hundreds of years in antiquity, Christian priests performed ceremonies celebrating homosexual unions. His case rests upon dozens of manuscripts that document a particular ritual practiced in the Christian church during that time. The ceremony is known in Greek as "adelphopoiesis," or the "making of a brother."
Among many examples of same-sex partners joined by this ritual, Dr. Boswell cites the fourth century Greek martyr saints Serge and Bacchus; the Roman female martyrs Perpetua and Felicitas; and the apostles Peter and Paul
A question of interpretation
The manuscripts cited by Dr. Boswell were collected during 12 years of hunting through archives from Paris' Bibliotheque Nationale to the Vatican library. The validity of the documents is not in dispute -- only his translation and interpretation of their significance.
Greek Orthodox scholars have always known about the rituals, according to the Rev. Milton B. Efthimiou, a historian of that church, who read the book and expressed admiration for the assiduous research.
Rather than homosexual marriages, the rituals mark fellowships between two people of the same sex, usually men, he says. Such a pact might be made by men going to war.
"It is ridiculous to think that the church would have created a ritual sanctifying homosexual unions when, at the same time, the ecumenical councils were coming down very hard on the acting out of homosexuality," says Father Efthimiou, who is director of interchurch relations for the Greek Orthodox Church of North and South America.
Under Byzantine religious and secular law, homosexual acts could be punished by imprisonment, castration or death.
Roman Catholic church leaders declined to comment specifically the book, but are skeptical. "It doesn't seem plausible that there could be such teachings [condemning homosexuality] in the church and such blessings," says William Ryan, spokesman for the Catholic Bishops Conference in Washington. "But we leave it for the scholars to judge in due time."
Other academics, too, voiced concern that Dr. Boswell's interpretation of the rituals was inaccurate. "He has some very interesting texts that are in the main known only in very specialized circles," says Dr. Robert L. Wilken, a University of Virginia professor of Christian history. "The rituals established a bond between people who weren't [related]. Boswell interprets this to be gay marriage -- they have nothing to do with gay marriage. They usually were with people already married."
Like Mafia dons?
Dr. Brent Shaw, a historian specializing in ancient Greece and Rome, suggests that the rituals mark political pacts, not TC homosexual unions. The relationships may be similar to those of "Mafia dons who wish to forge close personal links to make themselves brothers so they won't harm each other," says Dr. Shaw, who is currently at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton.
"To put a kind interpretation on this -- it happens to many historians -- you really want to see something in the documents and so you see it," he says. "You develop ideological blinkers and blinders."
Such outspoken criticism has not dampened enthusiasm for the bookamong many members of the gay and lesbian community. "It shows the suppression of a part of our tradition and that is very important to us," says Kevin Calegari, past president of Dignity, an organization of gay and lesbian Catholics that has 85 chapters nationwide. "To be able to find that tradition is very spiritually empowering."
To Mr. Calegari, who is a student at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, Calif., and who reads Greek, "There is no other way to explain why there would be this kind of ritual between two people, never three, never more. There is nothing else that points to anything but a homosexual union."
Used the blessings
For D. A. Schwarz, a Baltimore social worker, Dr. Boswell's book is an important step forward. "Very few well-known historians are actually doing real, honest-to-God history on this topic," she says. "It is like finding lost threads of the cloth of life
and pulling those threads through."
She and her partner incorporated some of the ritual blessings into their July 2 union ceremony that was performed by a priest in a Washington church. The women did not want to identify the church.
Making a public declaration of love was very important to both women, Ms. Schwarz says. "A wedding is not just between two people. It clarifies the relationship before the whole community. The tradition of these blessings puts a context around your relationship."
The outcry has not fazed Dr. Boswell. "This book is an attempt to introduce Christians to an aspect of their past that they didn't suspect existed, and I think I've done that," he says.
Besides, he notes, the astronomer Galileo, who died in 1642, was persecuted by the Roman Catholic Church for insisting that Earth is not the center of the universe.
"It was only last year that Galileo was exonerated," the author says.