Through the cooperative efforts of the Federal Aviation Commission, the state of Hawaii, the U.S. Navy, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1972. Today, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is responsible for maintaining the national wildlife refuges on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. Many volunteers over the years, including Navy personnel and their families, have given their time to help with efforts to enhance the wildlife habitat for Hawaiian water birds, migratory birds, and endangered bird species including Hawaiian stilt, Hawaiian duck, Hawaiian coot, and Hawaiian moorhen.