Shin splints — otherwise known in the medical world as Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (MTSS) — is an injury common to runners and other athletes, but can also affect anyone participating in physical activity, especially those who are just beginning a fitness program.

According to, shin splints — characterized by pain along the inner edge of your shinbone, or tibia — is the result of “too much force being placed on your shinbone and connective tissues that attach your muscles to the bone.”


The condition typically occurs after long periods of repetitive stress to the tibia and also following sudden changes in physical activity, such as increasing frequency, intensity and duration of workouts, and running on hills or uneven surfaces. Individuals who return to exercise after a long period of inactivity may also experience shin splints.

Other factors that can lead to the development of MTSS include biomechanical irregularities, muscle imbalances, weakness and inflexibility, wearing improper or worn-out shoes, excessive pronation, engaging in high-impact activities on hard surfaces, having flat feet, rigid arches, or poor running form, and smoking.

Women, due to a higher incidence of diminished bone density and osteoporosis, are more likely than men to suffer from shin splints.

If you experience a dull ache, tenderness, soreness or swelling along your tibia, discontinue the activity that is causing pain. notes that most cases of shin splints can be treated with rest, ice, and other self-care measures such as the use of anti-inflammatories and orthotics, stretching and strength training, taping or using compression sleeves, and wearing appropriate footwear. Most importantly, do not ignore shin pain or attempt to work through it as MTSS does not usually resolve on its own and, left untreated, may progress into a stress fracture.

A stress fracture is a tiny chip or crack in the bone that requires rest until the bone has healed.

So, at the first sign of shin splits, decrease your mileage or stay off your feet completely for a few days while administering self-care. If shin pain or swelling persists, or if your shin becomes hot and inflamed, seek medical care to rule out stress fractures or other shin problems such as tendonitis; a correct diagnosis is necessary for determining the appropriate treatment.

Most cases of shin splints resolves with rest and self-care, but you should aim to be pain-free for two weeks before returning to exercise at a reduced rate of intensity and a gradually increase your training.

To prevent shin splints, always warm up before exercising, wear shoes appropriate to the activity and your body, lessen the impact by cross-training and running on forgiving surfaces, include strength training and stretching in your exercise routine, gradually increase your training, avoid excessive hill work, and tune in to your body to be alert to the first signs of shin pain.