While the ICC began to function in 2002, earlier versions of the court go back to 1919 and war crime trials following World War I. Two similar courts were established after World War II, one in Nuremberg and the other in Tokyo, again to address war crimes. But while many attempts were made to establish a permanent international court, it was not until a 1998 United Nation's conference in Rome that the Rome Statue of the International Criminal Court was adopted by a vote of 120 to seven. The United States and Israel joined China, Iraq, Libya, Qatar and Yemen in voting against the establishment of the ICC. Since then, two additional nations have signed on to the Rome Statute, bringing total membership of the ICC to 122.