Social scientists have long been intrigued by this phenomenon. In 1960, Columbia University researcher Joseph Klapper studied the effects of mass communication. For Klapper there was no simple cause and effect via media, no silver bullet. In today's world, that means a TV ad for Larry Hogan didn't automatically cause voters to decide to support him. The same goes for a Dodge Ram 2500 commercial or a Heineken ad. That's because of three selective processes we all employ to avoid cognitive dissonance, a term used to describe the discomfort of having to juggle conflicting points of view. No one welcomes this internal battle. We all crave a sense of equilibrium, so we make choices to select and support one candidate for governor, one brand of truck, one beer or football team, etc.