These laws were upheld by the courts, notwithstanding the Second Amendment touted so vigorously today. In Virginia, Tennessee, North Carolina, and the new state of Florida, dozens of laws kept guns out of the hands of black Americans. Even after the passage of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution which provided equal protection to all Americans, including black Americans, state legislatures and local governments used Black Code laws to keep black Americans from purchasing guns and ammunition. Black Codes were used in many states in 1865 and 1866 in response to the Emancipation Proclamation and the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution which abolished slavery. Local and state governments used these special regulations to maintain control over black Americans even after they were freed. This control included their access to guns.