First is that the resulting U.S. overhead reconnaissance debunked previous assessments by Department of Defense and other government agencies of a massive Soviet advantage in terms of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) with nuclear weapons pointed at the U.S. This was a relief to the Eisenhower administration because conventional wisdom at the time was that the Soviets held a significant nuclear advantage. That view was reinforced by the public perception of Soviet superiority in space – first satellite, first man in space, first woman in space, first spacewalk, etc. This misperception allowed John F. Kennedy to campaign on the apparent impotence of the Eisenhower administration in allowing a nuclear disparity to become a crisis during his tenure. But because the intelligence information revealing that the U.S. actually held an advantage in deployed nuclear weapons was classified, Vice President Richard M. Nixon was unable to dispute Kennedy with the actual facts and lost the election. Upon his election, Kennedy was briefed by Eisenhower regarding the reality of the situation.