State dig uncovers the secrets of an 1814 battlefield
By By Candy Thomson and The Baltimore Sun
Dec 16, 2012 at 5:38 PM
The DNA of a battle that helped turn the tide of a war going horribly wrong for America lay buried just six inches below the surface in a Kent County cornfield.
For nearly two centuries, the musket balls, canister shot and other artifacts from intense fighting at Caulk's Field waited to tell the story of a sweltering August night in 1814, when militiamen sprang a trap on a British raiding party bent on destruction.
How did the citizen-soldiers best their battle-tested foes at Caulk's Field?
State archaeologist Julie Schablitsky hopes to figure that out. With the help of history buffs armed with metal detectors and some cadaver-sniffing dogs, she is retracing the footsteps of Sir Peter Parker, a British marine captain leading 170 troops, and a like number of militiamen commanded by Col. Philip Reed.
"This battlefield is frozen in time," Schablitsky said. "It was a pasture 200 years ago and it's a pasture now. If Captain Parker or Colonel Reed came by today, they'd know exactly where they were."
They might even recognize some of the artifacts being cleaned and cataloged in a Baltimore laboratory.
"It's not just the artifact. It's the story attached to each one," Schablitsky said. "From mid-August to mid-September in 1814, Maryland was a war zone. People were watching in terror. Houses were set on fire and people were captured. Washington burned."
The dig was set in motion by the Maryland War of 1812 Bicentennial Commission, which secured a $40,000 federal grant two years ago. Schablitsky, who works for the State Highway Administration, was tapped for the job.
Shablitsky, 43, an Annapolis resident, had been involved in other 1812 digs, but she was best known for her research on the Donner Party campsite in the Sierra Nevada range and John Paul Jones' birthplace in Scotland.
The opportunity to try to fill in the blanks at Caulk's Field intrigued state officials.
"This is easily the best-preserved 1812 battlefield in the Mid-Atlantic, thanks to the excellent stewardship of the owners, the Tulip Forest Farming Corp., who understood its importance and protected it," said Bill Pencek, the commission's executive director.
This much was known: On Aug. 30, 1814, Parker's troops came ashore from HMS Menelaus, hoping to surprise and capture Maryland militiamen to get information about Baltimore's defenses. The British already had burned Washington. They were preparing a siege of Baltimore and hoping to wipe out pockets of resistance across the Chesapeake Bay.
But the Americans knew they were coming and ambushed them just east of Georgetown Road on an 80-acre farm. During the hour-long battle, 14 British soldiers and marines died, including Parker, 28, who was shot and bled to death. The Americans suffered just three wounded.
With their commander dead and the Americans holding the high ground, the invaders retreated to their ship. Two weeks later, the British withdrew from the upper Chesapeake Bay when their siege of Baltimore and bombardment of Fort McHenry failed.
"The questions were, 'Could we find where men stood and fought? Could we find where they made camp?'" Schablitsky said. "It's really like a crime scene. You have to let the artifacts — the evidence — tell you what was going on."
Just two sets of post-battle notes — one British and one American — exist. So last April, Schablitsky enlisted the New Jersey-based Battlefield Restoration and Archaeological Volunteer Organization to scour half the field and mark each artifact with a flag.
During the height of the battle, soldiers were "shedding metal," said Schablitsky, and the pattern of brass buttons, spent munitions and coins showed the general disposition of troops. Knowing the characteristics of each side's musket shot (the American shot was smaller) and the range of the guns helped draw battle lines.
Unfired ammunition dropped in the heat of battle as soldiers on both sides hurried to reload indicates how far the British soldiers chased the Americans as they fell back to the high ground and the protection of their artillery.
"When I got out there, I wasn't that impressed," she said of the pasture. "But when I started seeing patterns, that's when my jaw dropped."
A sweep of a second 40 acres this fall indicated that the battle spread wider than originally believed.
Three cadaver-sniffing dogs independently zeroed in on three sites that most likely were used to bury British dead, except for Parker, whose body was returned to England for interment, with the eulogy delivered by his first cousin, Lord Byron. Those sites will not be touched, Schablitsky said.
Her next step is to put all the pieces together and develop a story line for the battle. Her findings will be peer-reviewed before release.
The owners of Tulip Forest Farm donated the artifacts to the state. Once cataloged, the items will be sent to the Maryland Archaeological Conservation Laboratory in St. Mary's County for evaluation, further cleaning and storage. They will be displayed, made available for researchers and could tour Maryland museums during 2014, the climax of the bicentennial celebration.
Pencek said the commission and Schablitsky will evaluate the dig and work with the property owners to ensure the battlefield remains an untouched resource.
"Everything costs money," Pencek said. "We have expended the federal funding and will need to look for other sources."
One of those sources is the 2012 Star-Spangled Banner commemorative coins. Of the 600,000 pieces authorized by the U.S. Mint, 230,000 have been sold. Sales will end on Dec. 17, at which time the commission hopes to have netted $3 million.
"The funds generated go to help preserve sites like Caulk's Field, so we hope there's a final holiday sales push," Pencek said. "If every coin is sold, the commission could net a maximum of $8.5 million."
Richard van Stolk, one of the farm's owners who manages the property, said the family "had a suspicion" that the pasture held secrets.
"We never developed it, so the potential was always there," he said. "We never let anyone out there with metal detectors because we wanted to do it properly. Now it has and we couldn't be happier."