Crowdfunding: Pitching in for health

Even with stage 4 lung cancer, there are moments when 32-year-old Chip Kennett feels blessed. Over the course of two weeks in April, those moments were many, as 325 friends and family members contributed $56,800 over the Internet to help defray his out-of-pocket medical costs.

Kennett's wife, Sheila, says she was overwhelmed by the generosity. We "kept saying how lucky we were!" she wrote in her blog Team Kennett. "Now just how messed up is that?"

The Kennett family is one of thousands turning to the Internet to raise money for medical bills. The sites that host these campaigns operate much like online business fundraising sites such as Kickstarter.

It takes only a few keystrokes for a family to set up a Web page where they tell their story and state a fundraising goal; later, they can spread the word on social media sites such as Facebook. Donations can be made with credit cards or via PayPal.

The contributions, which can be given by name or anonymously, typically range from the very small (as little as $5) to the extremely generous ($1,000 and up). Most sites are for-profit and charge a fee, between 3 and 12 percent of the money donated, to cover processing costs and the expenses of running the website.

The Kennetts acknowledge they are lucky to have good health insurance. Even so, they have paid thousands of dollars in out-of-pocket expenses, including the insurance plan's co-pay requirements and its $5,000 annual deductible ($7,000 for out-of-network doctors) for both 2012 and 2013. They also face large bills for their share of medication costs, travel expenses and child care.

The Internet fundraiser has helped alleviate some of those concerns. But perhaps more significantly, it has boosted the family's morale.

"I could be having a bad day and be really down," says Chip, who was caught off guard by his diagnosis since he had not been a smoker. "I'd go check the website. It was inspiring to check the dollar figure and the notes from friends. I'd find new notes from friends I hadn't talked to forever. It provided emotional comfort that was extremely uplifting."

Growing popularity

Medical fundraising sites are growing in number and profitability.

In the first 12 months after it launched in 2008, GiveForward raised $225,000 for 359 campaigns; this year, it has already raised more than $20 million for more than 15,000. Company officials said GiveForward had more than $1.4 million in revenue in 2012 and has raised more than $47 million for families since it began.

Other sites have sprung up over the past five years, including,, and Unlike GiveForward, these sites also raise money to help pay for tuition, travel, disaster relief, pets' medical care and funeral costs.

Some medical institutions and associations are joining in. The nonprofit Rare Genomics Institute, for example, was created two years ago to help families raise money to sequence genes of patients with rare genetic diseases, a process that generally costs about $10,000 and is rarely covered by insurance.

The founder of GiveForward, Ethan Austin, says he is not surprised at the rapid growth of crowdfunding for medical costs, citing a 2011 National Bureau of Economic Research study that found that half of American adults say they would not be able to come up with $2,000 in the event of a medical emergency.

This, taken along with another recent study showing that the average cancer patient incurs as much as $8,500 a year in expenses not covered by insurance, further explains why so many ailing Americans are seeking outside help to pay their expenses, according to Austin.

Think about details

Crowdfunding for medical costs, supporters say, is fast and efficient. Still, it might not be a solution for every patient.

The messaging: "People think the money magically flows in, but it doesn't happen like that," says Jimmy Lin, president of the Rare Genomics Institute. "There is a lot of work involved. Putting up a page is just the beginning. Families need photos and personalized stories to help people connect, they need to think about how to leverage the people they know to raise funds and they need to use social media to stimulate support."

"It's not intuitive," Austin says. "You can't just send out a mass email and be done with it." To be successful, there's a sophisticated strategy, he explains, including asking close friends and relatives to contribute first.

They are more likely to make a larger donation, say $50 to $100, prompting others who follow to make similarly sized contributions.

Persistence is also required, Austin says. "If you stop asking, you won't keep getting donations."

Waiting for donations: Fundraisers looking for a quick influx of funds may also be surprised. Although some websites pass on the money, minus the fees, as soon as a donation is made, several hold on to all donations until the fundraiser is over. (An end date is usually set when the campaign is launched.)

In some instances, no money is turned over if the goal stated at the outset is not met. In that case, contributions are credited back to the donors.

Privacy: One Illinois freelance writer says she became concerned after friends created a fundraiser to help cover the costs of her chronic illness. Prospective employers, she worried, might stumble on the site while searching for her name on the Internet. She believes this is the reason she didn't get a job she applied for.

Qualifying for assistance: For people on Medicaid or other programs that serve only people who are low on assets and income, there might be financial consequences. Donated funds could affect a person's eligibility for assistance, so it would be wise to check with the appropriate officials before raising money.

Donor concerns: Most such contributions are not tax-deductible since virtually all the campaigns are being staged by people, not nonprofit organizations.

There's also the issue of accountability on the use of funds, notes Tony Dale, founder of the Karis Group, a firm that provides patient advocacy and bill-mediation service to help resolve medical billing issues.

"I would hate to think people are giving up their hard-earned money to help (someone who) hadn't done the necessary homework to make sure he or she was paying a fair price" for medical services, Dale says.

Additionally, because crowdfunding websites do not verify the legitimacy of every fundraiser, there is ample room for fraud. That's why most sites caution donors to give only to people they know or to friends of friends.

The Kennetts are well aware of that concern, as Sheila joked in her blog: "We wonder if anyone would notice if Chip was suddenly driving a new car. … But we clearly jest. … Please, please know we respect your generosity so very much that we promise to use the funds exactly as intended and will do our best to make it stretch as far and long as possible."

Kaiser Health News is an editorially independent program of the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, a nonprofit, nonpartisan health policy research and communication organization not affiliated with Kaiser Permanente.

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