If conservative therapy fails, the patients are usually referred for non-surgical treatment of internal hemorrhoids. Traditional non-surgical modalities include rubber band ligation, infrared coagulation, laser therapy, etc. However, all these treatments can have significant drawbacks. For example, the application of rubber bands is an effective but very painful procedure. Rectal discomfort and pain after placement of the rubber bands can be so severe, that it may even necessitate the removal of the band. In addition, numerous serious and even life-threatening complications, such as infection and necrosis, have been reported after hemorrhoidal rubber banding. Other traditional non-surgical modalities (sclerotherapy, infrared coagulation, bipolar diathermy, laser photocoagulation) cause less post-procedural pain, but are also less effective compared to band ligation and usually require repeated therapeutic sessions, significantly increasing the treatment expenses.