a Yale professor of pediatrics, and his colleagues compared performance on seven specific tasks – reading speed, single-word identification, spelling, accuracy, real and non-word reading, and reading comprehension.
They adjusted for socioeconomic status, mother-child interactions and 14 other potential factors.
They found that on average, children exposed to high levels of nicotine
scored 21 percent lower in these areas than classmates born to non-smoking mothers. The children were tested at age seven and again at age nine.
“It’s not a little difference — it’s a big difference in accuracy and comprehension at a critical time when children are being assessed, and are getting a sense of what it means to be successful,” Gruen said in a statement.