A stay in intensive care stresses 1 in 3 patients out so much it leads to symptoms of depression, according to research by Johns Hopkins Medicine scientists.

The symptoms can last for a year or more, according to the results to be published in the September issue of the journal Critical Care Medicine.

The researchers used data for more than 4,000 patients from five electronic databases. They combed the databases for studies of depression after ICU stays conducted from 1970 March 13, 2015. The studies included male and female patients of many different ages with 14 studies conducted in the United Kingdom and 10 in the United States.

ICU patients were three to four times more likely than the general population to have symptoms of depression, the study found.

"It's very clear that ICU survivors have physical, cognitive and psychological problems that greatly impair their reintegration into society, return to work and being able to take on previous roles in life," senior study author Dr.  Dale Needham, M.D., professor of medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, said in a news release.