In 1960, the first-ever debate between presidential nominees took place as Democrat John F. Kennedy and Republican Richard M. Nixon faced off before a national TV audience from Chicago.

1777: British troops occupied Philadelphia during the American Revolution.

1789: Thomas Jefferson was confirmed by the Senate to be the first United States secretary of state; John Jay, the first chief justice; and Edmund Randolph, the first attorney general.

1918: The Meuse-Argonne offensive, resulting in an Allied victory against the Germans, began during World War I. 

1964: The situation comedy “Gilligan's Island” premiered on CBS-TV.

1990: The Motion Picture Association of America announced it had created a new rating, NC-17, to replace the X rating. (The first movie to receive the new rating was “Henry & June.”)

1991: Four men and four women began a two-year stay inside a sealed-off structure in Oracle, Ariz., called Biosphere 2. (They emerged from Biosphere on this date in 1993.)